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Research and Programmes

Culturelink review, no.30/April 2000 - contents - imprint - archive

The Consequences of Economic Globalisation, Free Trade and the Introduction of New Communication Technologies for Artistic Cultures in Different Parts of the World

An invitation to participate in a digital forum on the Internet: http://www.hku.nl/cvo/forum/

Moderator: Dr. Joost Smiers
(Joost Smiers is director of the Centre for Research at the Utrecht School of the Arts, the Netherlands, and visiting professor at the Department of World Arts and Cultures, UCLA, Los Angeles. His latest book is Rough Weather. Essays on the Social and Cultural Conditions for the Arts in Europe in the 1990s. The book has been published in France by L'Harmattan: État des lieux de la création en Europe. Le tissu culturel déchiré (1998), see Culturelink no. 27/April 1999, pp. 112-113.)

An invitation

The digital forum on the topic The Consequences of Economic Globalisation, Free Trade, and the Introduction of New Communication Technologies for Artistic Cultures in Different Parts of the World, to which I invite you and your colleagues, has as a starting point the research that I have been doing already for a couple of years. It is likely that there are other scholars in different parts of the world who are doing research on the same or comparable questions and who share my interest in discussing our common research topics. Therefore, I have taken the initiative to start a digital discussion group, which hopefully will serve the interests of all the participants.

In this invitation to participate in the debate I will give, after this introduction, a short abstract of the premises and the purpose of my research. Those will be followed by a series of issues which I propose as a start for our discussions. The idea is that you and the other participants will follow with your remarks and questions. This will lead to the exchange of research results, new questions, opinions, references, etcetera, among the participants of the digital discussion group.

In my research I try to give an overview of the consequences of economic globalisation, free trade, and the introduction of new communication technologies for artistic cultures in different parts of the world. The question is how globalisation influences the creation, production, distribution, and reception of film, theatre, dance, music, visual arts, design, new media and literature in their different forms, locations and occasions of presentation and/or appreciation. The question is also how the local artistic life relates to, or resists, the cultural practices and ambiences which originate, for instance, from cultural industries whose centres of decision making are far away?

One of the issues in my research concerns the question of the global monopolisation of copyrights, as you may see below. I have written an article on this issue for Gazette: The International Journal for Communication Studies under the title 'The abolition of copyrights: better for artists, third world countries and the public domain'. In this article you will find quite a number of questions which require further research.

I really hope that this initiative may inspire you to participate in the discussion, and that the communication with fellow researchers from all over the world will prove beneficial to your research or activities in the artistic cultural field in your society. I would like to ask you to inform your colleagues at home and abroad, who work in the same field, about the start of this digital discussion group.

I am grateful to the editorial board of Culturelink who made it possible for me to start the communication with and between you.

Economic globalisation: major consequences for artistic cultures

Economic globalisation, free trade worldwide, and the introduction of new communication technologies have major consequences for artistic cultures at local and regional levels all over the world.

Those consequences are felt in three principal areas:

  1. Copyrights or authors' rights on all artistic material may fall into the hands of a few monopolistic enterprises with a global reach, specially caused by TRIPs, the GATT agreement on intellectual property.
  2. Worldwide, a small number of transnational cultural conglomerates involved in production and distribution threaten to achieve market dominance on film, theatre, music, opera, dance, soap opera and the like, visual arts, new media, literature - in short, the whole gamut of artistic expression and entertainment in established and emerging media alike.
  3. The whole world, it appears, will soon be carpeted with arts, including the full range of artistic entertainment, which disseminate and promote the disposable consumer values necessary to the ruling corporate culture.

The proposed research programme has a twofold objective. First, it aims to develop an understanding of the consequences of economic globalisation, global free trade, and the introduction of new communication technologies in the three above-mentioned fields of authors' rights and copyrights, market dominance, and the spread of corporate consumer culture. It is assumed that those consequences vary among artistic and media forms, and also among different national and regional areas.

Second, the research concentrates on the identification of strategies to promote the development of indigenous artistic cultures on both local and regional levels. By 'indigenous' I mean belonging specifically to the societies located in a particular place. This will, therefore, include modern urban and pluralistic cultural formations, as well as the traditional and tribal forms usually suggested by the term. What kinds of artistic initiatives, policies and struggles are being elaborated in various places around the world, and how can those strategies achieve some global coordination and coherence?

People live somewhere

People spend most of their lives in societies that are geographically fixed. Despite globalising tendencies of all sorts, these societies are still largely bound to the physical area where its members live, work and raise their children. The development of any society, and the personal well-being and satisfaction of its inhabitants, is nourished in a substantial and essential way by the arts that circulate within it. The arts - of all stripes - generate, criticise, and reflect on ideas and feelings about the whole range of human experience: love and hatred, harmony and conflict, pleasure and pain, earthly and esoteric matters.

For the continued existence of a society it is essential that a wide range of emotions and moods are expressed by a variety of works of art (in the neutral sense as described below) that have their origins in that particular society . This can be accomplished:

  • by the creations of artists who live and work there;
  • by promoting favourable ambiences for artistic expressions that really belong to the specific culture, or cultures, of a particular society;
  • by supporting a rigorous and open climate for social debates and quarrels by which the arts and their underlying values are argued and determined;
  • by providing appropriate embeddings for works of art coming from abroad, linked to the local cultural circumstances; and
  • by encouraging the artistic and creative expression of 'ordinary' people, that is, those who are not professional artists, performers or workers in the media.

In the context of this research, the arts are defined as specific forms of communication; specific because of their aesthetic dimensions (that is, their employment of means that appeal to the different senses), because of their contents, which are distinct from ordinary forms of communication, and because of the specific contexts and locations in which they are presented and received. The term 'arts' will be applied neutrally, with reference to a whole range of specific forms of communication, without drawing a distinction between high or low, good or bad, significant or trivial. What should follow is the cultural judgment and critical attitude concerning what has been offered in different forms and presentations of the arts, because no work of art - so called high or low, etcetera - is neutral in its content and its influence.

How open or closed a society is to outside influence has profound cultural and social effects. On the one hand, if the artistic climate in a society is dominated mainly by influences from abroad, the texture and flavour of life as experienced on the local and regional level may be flattened and impoverished. The artistic climate includes the conditions for the production, dissemination and discussion of the arts. If, on the other hand, a society is largely closed to cultural and artistic influences, this, too, may have a stultifying effect on social life. One can never determine precisely the right balance between the vitality of indigenous artistic developments, on the one hand, and openness to influences from abroad, on the other hand. What is clear is that there needs to be some kind of balance, one that can be adjusted as conditions change.

The starting point for the present research is the premise that the healthy balance may be threatened by economic globalisation, free trade worldwide, and the introduction of new communication technologies. Artistic developments and cultures on both local and regional levels are in danger of being overwhelmed by the global reach and marketing clout of a small number of predatory transnational cultural industries.

At the outset of the research, the question must be addressed whether my presuppositions concerning the interest of the blossoming of local and regional artistic cultures are correct. More specifically, how will this issue be defined in different parts of the world? What, if any, ideas, projects, or policies have already been elaborated to address the need for a balance between openness on one side and protection for indigenous artistic scenes on the other?

In Europe, the interest of cultural diversity, and sometimes also the respect for cultural differences, has often come up in the context of the protection of local artistic developments. What do people think about this issue in other parts of the world?

Next, the most recent developments in the fields of economic globalisation, free trade and the latest communication technologies must be considered, and how their combined effects lead to unhampered free trade, megamergers of transnational cultural industries and the establishment of world-covering markets. The consequences of these processes, and possible strategies to respond to them, will be discussed in the context of the three research themes that I have outlined: authors' rights and copyrights, market dominance and the spread of corporate consumer culture.

Questions to start the discussion

  • After reading those topics, what kinds of observations come to mind concerning the artistic cultural life in your own local or regional society?
  • How would you characterise the situation for the creation, production, distribution and reception of film, theatre, dance, music, visual arts, design, and literature (as broad or narrow as those fields are), related to any possible globalising tendencies?
  • What are the threats, if any, for local or regional artistic developments? Or, possibilities?
  • What kinds of countermovements are you signalling in one or several fields of the arts and artistic culture in your society against the tendency to replace local or regional artistic developments by large scale cultural imports from abroad?
  • In the context of the WTO, specifically within the framework of GATS and TRIPS, pressure exists to continue to liberalise the cultural markets in all parts of the world. Are there debates on those developments in your society? How do you think those liberalising developments will influence cultural life in your society, specifically for different art forms?
  • If we agree that, right now, freedom, and specifically economic freedom, is the dominant concept of steering the world, do you think it is necessary that the concept of protection should get an equal importance? In the arts, freedom is essential. However, freedom should be balanced with certain forms of protection, otherwise it is possible that artistic life is monopolistically controlled everywhere in the world. How would you formulate, globally and locally, the theoretical foundations for the introduction of the concept of protection in the global debate on cultural life? Have there been discussions on this burning question, or other theoretical reflections, in your own society or in the region in which you live and work?
  • What are the practical consequences of balancing freedom and protection in artistic cultures on the global and local level? How should, or could, this work out on the level of global regulations, trade policies, copyright policies, and so on? What should be done in the field of regulations on local, national and/or regional level?
  • In the forum website (see above) you may find my article on copyrights, in which I list many questions on which much more research is needed. Those questions do not concern only copyrights, but also the broad field of the local and regional artistic and cultural life. What are your reactions to those issues? Obviously, in my analysis on copyrights there are many questions which still need to be answered. Which are the ones that need more elaboration, and which contradictions should be solved?
  • My analysis in the article on copyrights brings me to the radical idea that the abolition of copyrights is better for artists, third world countries and the public domain. What is your reaction to my analysis and my conclusion?
  • My analysis thus far brings me to the conviction that there is a relation between the global monopolisation of patents and other intellectual property rights, specifically concerning the ecological field, and the monopolisation of copyrights. See, amongst others, the book by Jeremy Rifkin, The Biotech Century. Harnessing the Gene and Remaking the World (1998). Does it make sense to you, in the perspective of your own society and cultural life, to link the movements which question the private and monopolistic appropriation of knowledge and creativity? Are you aware of any debates and/or movements which relate the cultural field to the ecological field, which both demand diversity and the protection of what is fragile?

For more information, please contact: Dr. Joost Smiers, Utrecht School of the Arts, Centre for Research, P.O. Box 1520, 3500 BM Utrecht, The Netherlands, tel.: 31.30.2332256; fax: 2332096; e-mail: joost.smiers@central.hku.nl

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Arts International Research Project

Towards A Global Cultural Community - Systems for Partnerships and Capacity-Building through the Arts


Arts International (See Culturelink no. 29/November 1999, pp. 7-8, and pp. 93-94 in this issue.) is currently undertaking a project to research and assess existing performing arts networks and systems in the United States and internationally in order to determine how they might best work together to share resources, build partnerships and cooperate in strengthening an equitable and diverse flow of artists and cultural production worldwide.

The goal of this research and assessment process is not to design one monolithic strategy or programme, but rather to identify key opportunities for interchange and cooperation among networks and systems and to engage arts professionals from diverse cultures in thinking together about ways to build and sustain their organizations and ensure the free and multi-directional flow of art across borders.

The scope of work includes, but is not limited to, a series of meetings among a representative group of 1) U.S.-based performing arts networks, systems, managements, and agencies involved in the touring of work, 2) networks and systems worldwide, and 3) information systems worldwide. Surveys will also be conducted of 1) information providers worldwide to gather information on the form and content of their arts databases and how their information is accessed and utilized, and 2) for-profit arts managements on the kinds of work they bring in the U.S. and services they provide. Several 'think pieces' may also be developed through this process.

At the conclusion of this project, Arts International will issue a series of reports linked by an overview document. While these reports will be a concrete result of the work, the more important result lies in fostering conversation, the exchange of ideas, and the possibility of lasting connection among participants. Their recommendation for future action and the ways in which they elect to continue their association, along with the results of AI's research, will provide a much needed step towards the development of a 'global map' of cultural flows in the performing arts and help chart areas where participants, including Arts International, might be helpful in the future.

About Arts International

Arts International is an independent, not-for-profit contemporary arts organization dedicated to the development and support of global cultural interchange in the arts and to educating audiences and the public about the richness and diversity of the arts worldwide.

Arts International works in three primary areas:

  • Creation of Projects and Partnerships that help to identify, develop and circulate new work crossing borders worldwide.
  • Development of Advised Funds and Regranting Programmes that provide support to artists and arts organizations engaged in international work.
  • Use of New Technologies and Media to share information, reach new audiences, educate and serve the public, and create connections among artists and cultural organizers around the world.

Arts International carries out its work through member networks, national and international convenings, joint programmes with collaborating institutions, and public/private partnerships.

Projects and Partnerships

Now in Development

  • New Works for a New World, a project to facilitate the creation and presentation of new work by artists crossing borders. Includes commissioning, development, and touring.
  • New Audiences for a New Millennium, a new multi-year public/private partnership to develop tools for translation and contextualization that will increase and educate for international work in the United States.
  • Americas Project, a partnership with La RED (See p. 17 in this issue.), CaribeNet, and other networks to identify, develop, and tour new work throughout the Americas.
  • World Cultural Forum, an annual convening of high-level policy makers, artists, cultural organizers, and entertainment and communication industry leaders to address issues of culture in the age of globalization.


  • Global Partnerships Initiative, creating ongoing links and strategic partnerships with key performing arts institutions and agencies to promote and support the movement of artists and work across international borders.
  • Inroads Knowledge Base, capturing and disseminating the knowledge of six key U.S. organizations that are providing models for the creation of international collaborative projects. Includes a series of four published Working Papers linked to a web-based knowledge-sharing forum and resource library.
  • Global Information Exchange Network, convening arts information providers around the world to develop and implement systems and protocols for information-sharing and the dissemination of work through new technologies.

Advised Funds and Regranting Programmes

  • The Fund for U.S. Artists at International Festivals and Exhibitions, a public-private partnership of the National Endowment for the Arts, the U.S. Department of State, the Pew Charitable Trusts, and the Rockefeller Foundation. The Fund supports the participation of U.S. artists at international festivals and at major international visual arts biennials and recurring exhibitions such as Venice, Sao Paulo, Istanbul, Dakar, Sydney, Johannesburg, Cairo, etc.
  • The California Presenters Initiative, supported by the James Irvine Foundation. Provides support to California institutions for the presentation of contemporary work from around the world and supports individual performing arts presenter fellowships.
  • Artists at Giverny, supported by the Versailles Foundation and Laurence Rockefeller. Provides opportunities for U.S. visual artists to live and work in residence at Monet's Gardens at Giverny.
  • The Edith Markson Travel Fund, supported by friends and family of Edith Markson. Supports connections and interchange between U.S. theatre artists and their colleagues in Russia and the former Soviet Union.
  • The Fund for Croatian Arts and Culture, supported by the Heathcote Foundation. Provides support for projects and institutions with Croatia and for cultural interchange between Croatia and other countries.
  • Philip Morris International Grantmaking, on behalf of and supported by Philip Morris Companies, International. Provides grants in the arts worldwide.
  • Trust for Mutual Understanding International Grantmaking on behalf of and supported by the Trust for Mutual Understanding. Provides grants in the arts in Eastern and Central Europe and the former Soviet Union.

New Technologies and Media

Internet and New Media

  • New offices equipped with lT access and Media Lab for development and web broadcast of audio and video.
  • www.artsinternational.org website debuted 1 January 2000.
  • On-line database including information on artists, arts organizations, venues, international festivals, projects in development, and key contacts around the world.
  • Archive of digitized audio and video clips of artists' work from 57 countries.
  • Inroads/Africa CD ROM (1995) featuring the work of six African artists.
  • Enterprise Development Project, to begin February 2000, to identify and design web-based income producing activities related to Arts International's mission and content.


  • ai: performance for the planet, a new quarterly magazine devoted to contemporary performing arts. Includes interviews with artists, features on new work and international events, tracking of trends, and listing of what is happening where around the world.
  • Connect, a new biannual journal discussing issues surrounding international and intercultural interchange in the visual and performing arts. Created in partnership with an international editorial board including Omofolabo Soyinka, Amalia Mesa-Bains, Ricardo Trimillos, Rosalind Morris, Toby Miller, and others.

Arts International has a new address: 251 Park Avenue South, 5th Floor, New York, NY 10010-7302, USA, tel.: 212/674-9744, ext 109; fax: 212/674-9092; e-mail: info@artsinternational.org; http://www.artsinternational.org

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The Cultural Policy and Planning Research Unit (CPPRU)

The Nottingham Trent University

The Cultural Policy and Planning Research Unit (CPPRU) is a newly established centre based in the Faculty of Humanities of the Nottingham Trent University. The CPPRU will be developing a programme of professional development and training for those working across the cultural sector - in government, community and private sector roles. The Centre will be developing a strategic partnership programme working with industry, community and government agencies towards agreed research and training agendas and priorities. It will provide the UK with an academic base akin to centres in Europe, Australia and Canada, dedicated to the analysis and development of cultural policy from cultural statistics and indicators to methodologies of cultural mapping and planning. Also, the Centre will investigate the crucial links between the cultural sector and new media development, as well as addressing the impact of cultural policy on industrial development and employment generation.

The CPPRU will provide a firm knowledge and research base for those involved in cultural policy and planning in both the subsidised and commercial sectors, helping them to take a more integrated approach towards their strategy formulation. It will also investigate the relationship between sustainable cultural development and quality of life in communities, cities, regions and nations.

Professor Colin Mercer, a distinguished Culturelink member and formerly Associate Professor in Cultural Policy and History and Director of the Institute for Cultural Policy Studies at Griffith University, Australia, has been appointed the UK's first professor of Cultural Policy.

Professor Mercer can be contacted at: The Nottingham Trent University, Burton Street, Nottingham NG1 4BU, United Kingdom, tel.: 0115 948 6321; fax: 0115 948 6321; e-mail: colin.mercer@ntu.ac.uk

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Developing a Cultural Policy for the Americas

Prepared by Edmundo Fuenzalida, Cultural Studies Series No. 2, Organization of American States, Washington, D.C., 1999

Developing a Cultural Policy for the Americas is an 11-page document that belongs to the Cultural Studies Series of the Office of Cultural Affairs, Organization of American States (OAS). It contains an analysis of the development of a cultural policy for the Americas. Although a common set of values shared throughout the Americas (USA and states from Central and Latin America) has rarely been seen, a certain consensus on economic, social and political matters has been achieved, which creates an opportunity to work together to create a New World culture.

The document presents a diagnosis of the cultural situation in the New World and explains the requirements and general features of the new cultural policy. It reviews the funding situation for creative activity in American countries and gives a sketch of the cultural policy organization. The lack of connection and mutual familiarity between organizations working in the cultural area is the cause of its erosion as well as the erosion of non-urban and indigenous culture. The processes of creating a cultural policy for the Americas is based on this idea, stressing cultural richness and diversity.

The role of the OAS has also been examined.

To obtain the document, please contact: Organization of American States (OAS), Office of Cultural Affairs, 17th St. and Constitution Ave., NW Washington, D.C. 20006, USA, tel.: (202) 458 3000; fax: (202) 458 3967; http://www.oas.org

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Política Cultural de Colombia - Un lenguaje para la paz

República de Colombia, Ministerio de Cultura, 1999

Concurrently with its fortieth Annual Meeting of the Board of Governors in Paris in March 1999 (See Forum: Development and Culture, Culturelink no. 28/August 1999, pp. 33-34.), the Inter-American Development Bank sponsored several parallel forums, conferences, and other events on a wide range of subjects. These included an analysis of the cultural factor of development, undertaken within the forum on 'Development and Culture', organized in cooperation with UNESCO. The Forum examined how cultural change affects the political, economic, and social spheres and how cultural heritage can constitute an important social capital resource.

On this occasion, the Colombian delegation presented the text entitled Colombian Cultural Policy - A Language of Peace, a 34-page document concentrating on culture to bring about peace, tolerance and mutual respect in this conflict-torn country. The policy aims to improve the equality of access to cultural goods and services and promote the democratization of communication media through a National Project of Culture and Education through Mass Communication Media. In addition, the document discusses decentralization in a multicultural context, views children as creators and not only receptors of culture, and explores two main pilars of a cultural heritage policy. Finally, five innovative cultural projects are presented.

For more information, please contact: Inter-American Development Bank, 1300 New York Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20577, USA, tel.: 202-623-1000; http://www.iadb.org/

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Cultural Studies in Africa

Critical Arts: A Journal of Cultural Studies


Cultural Studies (CS) is the most popular school of theoretical work, empirical research and policy studies, as well as university courses, on culture. The school originated in Great Britain, where it was founded in the works of Raymond Williams, Richard Hoggart and E.P. Tompson in the sixties, and subsequently Stuart Hall (whose name is the 'trademark' for CS). It departs from the Gramscian theory of 'cultural hegemony' (of burgeoisie), but this tenet of class analysis has been substantially revised and supplemented with the thesis of pluralism and 'semiotic democracy' (John Fiske). This means that cultural meanings, unlike the goods in the analytical framework of critical political economy, are shared and reinterpreted in accordance with the needs of a complexly divided society and that no single and unitary model of culture can be appropriated in any society. CS in the UK is thus interested in phenomenology, ethnomethodology, structuralism, French literary theory, and postmodernism.

CS has spread throughout the world and has been adopted by other national academic traditions in cultural research. In the USA, CS is focused on media audience and how its members create their own meaning (on an individual basis) from the media content. In Latin America, the focus is on the adaptation and transformation of a mixture of indigenous and imported (largely American) popular cultural products. In Australia, CS is concentrated more on cultural practices in terms of their interaction with and within relations of power and, because of that, on the importance of policy study of culture, especially media and cultural industries.

Cultural Studies in Africa

The central component of African cultural studies is expressed in the notion of 'performative acts', which separates the approach from cultural studies solely as an academic discipline.

The topography of CS now looks like a cluster of 'common topics': gender, masculinity, class, ethnicity, literature, nation, popular culture, media, postcoloniality, and so on. As such, CS as praxis is seen at many African universities as a threat to conventional disciplines, as indeed are all the varying approaches nestling with this broad category. The response of some within literature in particular has been on occasion to adopt a post-English trajectory of the field in an attempt to recuperate arguments for certain kinds of literary analysis in the post-apartheid period. Simply, just as there is no one cultural studies internationally, there can never be a single African cultural studies. Accordingly, the journal of cultural studies, Critical Arts, develops various approaches. Produced by the Graduate Programme in Cultural and Media Studies, the journal examines the relationship between texts and contexts of the media in the Third World, cultural formations and popular forms of expression. In its Volume Thirteen, the focus is on Cultural Studies in Africa, with the aim to create a space for an African and Third World perspective on the topic.

Issue no. 1/1999 focuses on the definition of CS in Africa and in the world, stressing the difference, development trends and some critical perspectives of CS. An anthropological perspective on Bushman past and present is also presented.

Issue no. 2/1999 is more preoccupied with media issues in Africa, though it also deals with the African Renaissance and Folklore Studies.

The Theme Editor of both issues is Keyan G. Tomaselli.

For more information or to subscribe, please contact: Critical Arts, Graduate Programme in Cultural and Media Studies, University of Natal, Durban, 4041, South Africa, fax: +27 31 260 1519; e-mail: ccms@mtb.und.ac.za; http://www.und.ac.za/und/ccms/critarts

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The Privatization of Culture Project

Privatization of Culture is a project based in New York University's American Studies Program in cooperation with the Sociology Program at the New School and the Center for Cultural Studies at the Graduate Center of the City University of New York. The Project encourages transdisciplinary work that takes into account both formal and informal markets, institutional participation, and dominant and alternative cultural practices. Rockefeller residencies will bring together scholars, foundation officers, corporate funding specialists, curators and educators, artists, and community cultural advocacy professionals to assess existing arrangements and to propose new ways to democratize cultural participation in local, national, and transnational settings.

Since the past decade has witnessed an acceleration in policies to privatize support throughout North and Latin America, East and West Europe, a need for such a Project was expressed. The 1998-1999 theme concentrated on the history of sponsorship. The 1999-2000 theme focuses on current changes in systems of support in the arts and humanities, while the years 2000-2001 will bring up the issue of minority participation.

For further information or to apply, contact: George Yúdice, Director Privatization of Culture Project, American Studies Program, New York University, 285 Mercer Street, 8th Floor, New York, NY 10003, USA, tel.: 212 998 3752; fax: 212 995 4371; e-mail: priv.culture@nyu.edu; http://www.nyu.edu/projects/privculture/privcul.htm

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Partnership for Culture

Partnership for Culture is a project initiated by the Swedish Ministries of Foreign Affairs and Culture in collaboration with the Swedish Institute (SI). It is a long-term project involving dialogue and cultural exchange and it centres on the capacity of culture and cultural policy for promoting freedom of expression and diversity, democracy and mutual security. Partnership for Culture seeks to provide a meeting point and a common public forum where artists, cultural activists, politicians and intellectuals from the Baltic Sea region and from Belarus and Ukraine can conduct a dialogue across national and cultural boundaries. The project includes seminars, exchange programmes, educational initiatives and other target activities in connection with cultural events in Sweden and the participating countries.

For more information, please contact: Partnership for Culture/Svenska Institutet, Sverigehuset, Hamngatan/ Kungsträdgarden, Box 7434, SE-103 91 Stockholm, Sweden, tel.: 46 8 789 20 00; fax: 46 8 20 72 48; http://www.si.se

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Developments in International Museum and Cultural Heritage Information Standards

Developments in International Museum and Cultural Heritage Information Standards is a joint project of the Getty Art History Information Program and the International Documentation Committee of the International Council of Museums. The two organizations examined the present state of standards in such cultural heritage fields as the museum and archival communities, archaeology, architecture and conservation. Since there is a growing need for standards that should be developed, it was agreed that a guide to some of the major standards initiatives would stimulate interest in the field, help avoid duplication of effort, and interest a more diverse set of individuals and organizations in working to develop standards. Therefore, a resource guide was produced to describe a number of international and national standards initiatives.

For more information or to obtain a resource guide, contact: The Getty Art History Information Program, 401 Wilshire Boulevard, Suite 1100, Santa Monica, California, USA, tel.: +1 310 395 1025; fax: +1 310 451 5570 or The International Council of Museums, UNESCO, 1 rue Miollis, 75732 Paris Cedex 15, France, tel.: +33 1 45 68 28 52; fax: +33 1 43 06 78 62.

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Plans and Objectives of the International Cultural Centre Cracow for the Year 2000

The International Cultural Centre Cracow is planning great events to take place in 2000 as an important contribution to Cracow - one of the European Cities of Culture in the year 2000. Traditionally, it is the Centre's exhibitions that draw the largest numbers of visitors. For the year 2000, seven of them are planned:

  • April: The Jagiellonian University: a History in Documents (14th-20th Century);
  • May: Made in Hungary, Hungarian Photographers 1919-1956;
  • June-July: The Power of Imagination, Brussels and Symbolism;
  • September-October: Mersad Berber - International Print Triennial '97, Grand Prix;
  • October-November: Otto Wagner and Vienna Around 1900;
  • December 2000-January 2001: Paula Modersohn-Becker and the Worpswede Artists Drawings and Prints 1895-1906.

The Centre is also planning to organize two conferences. The first one is to be held in June under the title 'Cracow and Prague: Two Central European Capitals'. The second one, international in character, will be held in October, and will be dedicated to conservation. The Centre has undertaken to organize a 'Heritage and Economy' section.

A seminar organized as part of the cycle on 'Cultural Space of Eastern Galicia and Bukowina' is also planned to be held in June.

'Heritage and Transformation in Central Europe: The Case of Cracow' is one of the two research projects undertaken by the International Cultural Centre Cracow. The aim is to analyze problems related to physical planning, heritage conservation, and city management in the present period of socio-economic changes in Central Europe. The other research project is entitled 'Architecture and Town Planning in 19th Century Galicia'. It aims to make a substantial contribution to the current state of research on Galicia-related issues and to a better understanding of problems related to the preservation of Poland's and the Ukraine's common cultural heritage.

The Centre is also active in the field of education. Three educational programmes are to be organized in the year 2000:

  • July 9-30: Population Movements in Central Europe: Past-Present-Future; (See page 71 in this issue.)
  • July 12-August 1: Democracy and Diversity; and
  • August 20-September 3: Sommerakademie (focusing on the upcoming integration of Poland into the European Union).

The International Cultural Centre Cracow also has a strong publishing activity.

All of the mentioned activities show the excellence of the Centre, which has been proved over the past years.

For further information, please contact: International Cultural Centre, Rynek Glówny 25, 31-008 Kraków, Poland, tel.: (012) 421 86 01; fax: (012) 421 85 71; e-mail: sekret@mck.krakow.pl; http://www.mck.krakow.pl

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Institute of Social Studies

The Institute of Social Studies in The Hague (Netherlands) is offering a PhD programme in development studies in the following fields: 'Economics of Sustainable Development', 'States, Societies, World Development', 'Human Resources and Local Development' and 'Rural Development, Environment and Population Studies'.

Contact: Institute of Social Studies, PO Box 29776, 2502 LT The Hague, The Netherlands, tel.: (31) 70 426 04 60; fax: (31) 70 426 07 99; e-mail: student.office@iss.nl; http://www.iss.nl

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Master in Cultural Management and Policies in Mercosur

The University of Palermo, the Cátedra UNESCO de Derechos Culturales (UNESCO Chair in Cultural Rights) and the Parlamento Cultural del Mercosur (PARCUM - Cultural Parliament of Mercosur) jointly offer an interdisciplinary Master's Programme in Cultural Management and Policies in Mercosur (Master en Gestión y Políticas Culturales en el Mercosur), concentrating on cultural rights, international cultural relations, cultural economy and marketing, administration of cultural institutions, and cultural policies.

The multidisciplinary work, research and teaching is concerned with cultural problems in Mercosur, providing professionals with the theoretical tools necessary for the successful establishment and management of cultural institutions. The courses train specialists in the field of cultural administration and management, offering up-to-date information and the methodology required for understanding the current situation in the field worldwide, as well as the knowledge for creative and critical assessment of the new structure of relations created by the regional Mercosur project aiming to link Argentina, Bolivia, Brasil, Chile, Paraguay and Uruguay.

Organized yearly, this unique two-year international programme held in Latin America is open to graduate students, professionals, specialists and teachers.

For further information, please contact: Professor Edwin R. Harvey, Universidad de Palermo, Facultad de Derecho, Mario Bravo 1302, 1175 Buenos Aires, Argentina, tel.: (5411) 4963-1180; fax: (5411) 4963-1560; http://www.palermo.edu.ar

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cecili@ - Management of Cultural Action and International Exchanges

Responding to the new challenges of internationalization of artistic production and cultural diffusion requiring new modes of cooperation, ARSEC (Agence Rhône-Alpes de Services aux Entreprises Culturelles) is entering the second year of its new university programme entitled cecili@ - Management de l'action culturelle et des échanges internationaux (Management of Cultural Action and International Exchanges), using interactive distance learning mechanisms via the Internet.

The programme, organized in cooperation with the Université Lumière de Lyon 2 and AFAA (Association Française d'Action Artistique), is tailored for representatives of French cultural networks abroad and for French artistic and cultural workers wishing to further develop their international relations. The topics covered include cultural policies and organization in France, international cultural exchanges and international law, financial and strategic management of an international project, history and the current state of cultural policies in Europe, international cultural economy, globalization, communication and cultural industries, and artistic exchange and cooperation.

For more information, please contact: ARSEC - Agence Rhône-Alpes de Services aux Entreprises Culturelles, 8 Rue du Griffon, 69001 Lyon, France, tel.: 04 78 39 01 05; fax: 04 78 28 98 22; e-mail: arsec@wanadoo.fr; http://iep.univ-lyon2.fr/cecili@

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Futurarium: School of Design, Architecture and Art

Futurarium is a new School of Design, Architecture and Art based in Milan. It is a post-graduate school with a Master's programme, intended for students who have successfully completed a design or related school, and is limited to thirty students. The course takes place from January to July 2000.

Constructing a new environment through design is Futurarium's programme for 2000, which will be the 'concrete structure of an abstract, conceptual, and metaphysical factory'. Teachers and students work together in their 'daily game' of designing to produce 'a new environment, populated by new objects: a space which is simultaneously physical and mental'.

The following are the topics of the lessons: The Future of the Home; The New Morality; The End, an End to a Means; Being Visionary; Microcosm - Macroanthropo; Launching New 'Isms'; Designing towards Tolerance; Decoration; Quiet and Dis-quiet; New Technics; How the Body will be; Wunderkammer; Unarmed Arms.

The six month course is divided into two phases of three months each. It is held in Milan as a full-time course with obligatory attendance. A certificate will be granted upon the successful completion of the course.

For more information, please contact: Futurarium, Via Piranesi 10, 20137 Milan, Italy, tel.: +39 02 715467; fax: +39 02 76119300; e-mail: futurarium@radiosity.it; http://www.futurarium.com

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The European Travel Bursary Scheme

The European Travel Bursary Scheme designed to promote mobility and exchanges in the field of cultural administration and arts management training (experts and trainees).

Deadlines: 15 April, 1 June 2000. Fondation Marcel Hicter, rue Cornet de Grez, B-1210 Brussels, Belgium, tel.: +32 2 2199886; fax: 2173572; e-mail: fond.hicter@geo.be

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CEU Summer University 2000

The Summer University (SUN) is an academic programme for university teachers, administrators and professionals. It offers a series of intensive two-, three- or four-week courses in social sciences and humanities to encourage and promote regional academic co-operation and curriculum development. The 2000 programme comprises 20 courses covering a vast range of studies, such as cultural anthropology, cultural studies, education, economics and European studies, international relations, political science and public policies. It will be held in Budapest, 10 July to 4 August 2000.

As last year, the Summer University will include the course Innovative cultural policies and cultural management in societies in transition, led by Professor Milena Dragicevic-Sesic from Belgrade University (10-28 July).

Contact: CEU Summer University Office, 1051 Budapest, Nádor u.9, Hungary, tel.: +36 1 327 8811; fax: +36 1 327 3124; e-mail: summeru@ceu.hu; http://www.ceu.hu/sunindx.html

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International Residencies for Artists

222 W. 14th St., 13A, NY, NY 10011;
e-mail: wsmart@earthlink.com

International Residencies for Artists (IRA) will provide travel grants to assist artists of all nationalities in all genres who must travel outside their country of residence for:

  1. residencies at established residency programs,
  2. visual artists to attend one-person exhibitions of their work,
  3. composers or choreographers to attend performances of their work.

Grants will be for 50% of the cost of international travel which must be verified by documentation. 'There are no deadlines for applying; it is an ongoing project. But IRA is a very small foundation with a small budget and will have to be more selective if the number of qualifying applicants increases significantly.'

To apply, simply send a letter, preferably by e-mail, to William Smart at the above address, explaining the project.

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The Comparative Education Programme in Euro-Mediterranean Studies

The Comparative Education Programme was set up in 1994 under the auspices of the Faculty of Education of the University of Malta. The founding Director was Ronald G. Sultana. The Programme focuses principally on the educational systems in Southern Europe, North Africa and the Middle East.

The objectives of the Comparative Education Programme in Euro-Mediterranean Studies are the following: 'To develop South-South and North-South dialogue in the field of education, and through this to enhance the possibility of mutual understanding and co-operation among the people of the Mediterranean in various spheres of life'.

Activities and initiatives managed by the Comparative Education Programme in Euro-Mediterranean Studies are the following:

  • The Mediterranean Network of Education Scholars, which presently counts more than 250 members, who benefit from the Programme's international contacts. One activity of this network is the publication of the Directory of Mediterranean Education Scholars, a data base on educational expertise in the region. International agencies and scholars regularly contact the Programme for the nomination of experts in specific fields in relation to the projects and initiatives that are being launched.
  • The Mediterranean Journal of Educational Studies, reporting educational research and discussing concerns related to the Mediterranean countries and to the diaspora of Mediterranean people worldwide. The bi-annual, peer reviewed journal was first published in 1996. Issues generally also carry reports regarding recent educational developments in different countries of the Mediterranean region.
  • The Selmun Seminar in Mediterranean Education Studies, a distinctive and distinguished forum bringing together education scholars of international repute from each country in the Mediterranean basin. The Selmun Fellows present state-of-the-art reviews of educational development in their respective systems and propose and pursue collaborative educational research projects on topics judged to be of regional concern. In this way, the Selmun Seminar in Mediterranean Education Studies contributes directly to the strengthening of the links between countries of the South, facilitating mutual understanding, co-operation, and transfer of knowledge. The first seminar took place in 1999 and was sponsored by UNESCO. The focus was innovation in meeting educational challenges in the region.
  • The Mediterranean Education Documentation Centre, which stocks and distributes research studies related to education in Mediterranean countries. The Programme is also responsible for entering information on Mediterranean education initiatives into UNESCO's International Bureau of Education data base, INNODATA.
  • The Mediterranean Education Programme Web Site, which carries information about the Programme and its various initiatives, and links to sites that are of interest to educational scholars.

For more information, please contact: Dr. Ronald G. Sultana, Director, tel.: +356.331761; fax: +356.317938; e-mail: rsul1@educ.um.edu.mt; http://www.educ.um.edu.mt/mep