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Research and Programmes

Culturelink review, no.25/August 1998 - contents - imprint - archive

The Ubuntu Movement: Pan African Movement for Cultural Cooperation and Development

The Ubuntu Movement is a Pan African initiative for the promotion of cultural cooperation and development. The Movement is conceived as a strategy to forge linkages, to enhance collaboration and to develop partnerships among individuals and institutions committed to the production, dissemination and consumption of African and African-inspired artistic and cultural expression worldwide. 'Ubuntu' is a Southern African word for humanness. It means 'I am because you exist', and it is an expression of community life and collective responsibility. 'Ubuntu' invokes notions of caring for and sharing with each other as we build a humane society. The concept of Ubuntu refers to understanding diversity and engaging difference for peace and development.

The Ubuntu Movement has the following aims:

  • to affirm and enrich the cultural identities of all African people, in the continent and in the Diaspora;
  • to promote networking and cultural exchanges within Africa and between Africa and the Diaspora;
  • to foster closer ties among Africanists;
  • to develop and sustain policies and investment in the development of cultural industries;
  • to advocate sound policies and investment in the development of cultural industries;
  • to develop markets for African artistic and cultural expression on the continent and overseas;
  • to provide a rallying point for people of all cultures to participate in the African experience;
  • to promote cross-cultural understanding and international cooperation;
  • to monitor culture and development trends in Africa and the Diaspora.


The need for appropriate strategies for taking culture into account in development planning and management has been emphasised for many years by policy-makers, management development professionals, and a public eager to keep close bonds with their cultural heritage as they promote their identities which they redefine in the light of new experience. Although attempts have been made by some governments and international organisations to address issues related to culture and development, the success of these efforts has been hampered by several factors, such as the lack of sound policies and adequate resources.

The United Nations World Decade for Cultural Development (1988-1997) brought a new challenge, as development partners began to reassess their experiences in the promotion of cultural initiatives, their attitudes towards culture, and their methods of intervention. In Africa, this challenge has been amplified by new demands of the transition to democracy, when a consideration of the role of cultural institutions and programs in the promotion of African civil society and development becomes very important. Internationally, the challenge of globalization and appreciation of new cultural experiences have also contributed to the current world focus on Africa, as evident in some recent events, such as Africa 95 in London, Inroads Africa in New York, Images in Copenhagen, the African Odyssey in Washington, the Celebration of African Cultural Heritage in Salvador, Brazil, the Pan African Consultation on Cultural Policies for Development in Lomé, Togo, and the Vision of African Cultural Cooperation and Development in Stockholm, Sweden. (Culturelink has drawn the attention of its members to these events, see for example pp. 45-48 in this issue.)

The Ubuntu Initiative was first discussed during the Pan African consultation on the promotion of African arts and culture, held in Johannesburg, South Africa, August 1996. The consultation was organized by the Rockefeller Foundation with the participation of UNESCO, the Organization of African Unity (OAU), the Ford Foundation, the Swedish International Development and Cooperation Agency (SIDA), and the Southern African Development Community (SADC). This consultation, intended to access current policies and practices for the promotion of cultural programmes in Africa and overseas, was attended by 55 participants - policy makers, cultural managers, arts presenters, trade officers, scholars, artists, and media professionals from Africa and its Diaspora.

The Johannesburg consultation discussed the state of cultural studies and policies in Africa, African festivals and cultural markets, partnerships and collaboration in the development of African arts and culture, promotion of cross-cultural understanding and regional cooperation, the relationship between the new South Africa and the rest of Africa, as well as problems and opportunities for cultural funding. Recognizing the need for synergy and collaboration in cultural programming, the participants endorsed (a) the idea of reviving Pan African Festivals and Exhibitions of Arts and Culture and (b) the establishment of a forum for continued dialogue and networking.

The Ubuntu movement is just one strategy for the promotion of cultural cooperation and development. There is no doubt that increased emphasis on the interaction between culture and development - both as a cultural context for development planning and management, as well as the development of cultural institutions and programmes - will continue to call for new strategies, resource requirements and partnerships.

Ubuntu 2000 Trust

The Ubuntu 2000 Trust is the legal entity for the coordination of programmes and activities of the movement. The Trust is currently registered in South Africa as a not-for-profit organization. Ubuntu 2000 will also be registered internationally in Johannesburg, South Africa.


The Ubuntu plan of action targets programmes that will encourage and sustain human and institutional capacity building in the field of culture and socio-economic development. Ubuntu activities are intended to strengthen existing initiatives in publishing, museum education, music and dance research and presentation, film and television, arts and crafts, and to build synergy among them. Special emphasis will be placed on research, documentation, training, cultural and professional exchanges, audience and cultural market development, and advocacy.

The centrepiece of Ubuntu programming is the Ubuntu Festival and Exhibition of Arts and Culture. Its mission is to celebrate and promote excellence in African and African-derived cultural and artistic creativity. This activity will be open to the people of Africa and the Diaspora, as well as to persons and institutions worldwide who are interested in the promotion of African arts and culture. This event will also provide opportunities for other Diaspora communities within Africa, such as those of European and Asian origin, to represent the diversity and richness of the contemporary African experience.

The Ubuntu 2000 Trust has selected South Africa to present the inaugural Pan African Festival and Exhibition of Arts and Culture in 1999 and has agreed to work collaboratively with South African and other international structures and institutions with similar objectives to host the event.

For more information, please contact: Mr. Christopher Till, Acting Executive Director, Ubuntu 2000, PO Box 583, Newtown 2113, Johannesburg, South Africa, tel.: (27 11) 838 4563; fax: (27 11) 838 2101; e-mail: ubuntu@ubuntu.org.za

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The Charter 'Pro Cultura' of Thessaloniki

The Greek Ministry of Culture has published the Charter of Thessaloniki PRO CULTURA, adopted at the end of the International Conference on Culture and Social Cohesion on the Eve of the Third Millenium, held in Thessaloniki, Greece, 10-13 April 1997, in co-operation with the Organization for the Cultural Capital of Europe Thessaloniki 1997, the European Cultural Centre of Delphi, and the University of Europe.

In the Charter, politicians and intellectuals from all over the world reiterated the priorities of modern society in culture and social cohesion, based on the essential, commonly accepted principle of the right to cultural parity.

For more information, please contact: Greek Ministry of Culture, 20 Bouboulinas str., Athens, Greece, tel.: 82 01 626, 82 01 347.

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Barcelona 2004

Universal Forum of Cultures Project

The Barcelona 2004 Universal Forum of Cultures project is an international innovative event. It aims to be a meeting place for the world's civil society, to promote the building of cultural societies of the twenty-first century, and to be an effective instrument for the dissemination of UNESCO's objectives and proposals. The project has the support of the Spanish Government and of the Autonomous Government of Catalonia. UNESCO is the main partner of the event.

The Forum topics will tackle three main challenges facing humanity: the conditions for peace, sustainable urban development, and the world's cultural diversity.

The event will last about 150 days. During this period, the following events will take place in various formats: conferences and debates of worldwide scope, thematic exhibitions, the Arts Forum, International Prizes, and the Virtual Forum. This last event, based on the use of telematic networks and television production, will simplify communication, allowing for a global interactivity of individuals and groups in relation to the contents of the project.

The Forum aims to bring together different cultures and agents: supra-national institutions, territorial institutions, civic associations.

The Citizen Council, a support body for the Forum has been formed by over 400 people from different cultural, social and economic sectors of Barcelona and Catalonia.

For further information, please contact: Barcelona 2004 Office, Torre Mapfre, Marina, 16-18, planta 29, 08005 Barcelona, Spain,
or consult the Forum's Website: http://www.bcn2004.org/

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Cultural Policies, Practices and Debates in East Central Europe

Call for Papers

We are seeking submissions for a collection of research articles and essays on contemporary cultural issues in East Central Europe. We welcome submissions from any disciplinary perspective related to the issues being considered (arts, literature, political science, social sciences, cultural studies, etc.), as well as submissions from cultural actors outside of academia. The purpose of this volume will be to provide a forum for analysts of cultural issues in East Central Europe (defined as the countries in Europe which had Communist regimes after World War II and were not part of the former Soviet Union: Poland, Hungary, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Romania, Bulgaria, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia-Hercegovina, Macedonia, SRJ, East Germany, Albania), as well as to offer materials for scholars and students of culture who wish to expand the scope of cultural studies beyond the boundaries of Western Europe and North America. It is intended to serve as a resource for researchers in this area and as a source for educators offering courses on issues in contemporary 'post-Communist' East Central Europe. In this spirit, works on cultural issues in any country, town, city or region of East Central Europe will be considered.

The volume will be organized around issues rather than around countries or regions. The topics listed below represent the initial concerns of the editors:

  1. Cultural Policies (Cultural funding and sponsorship, The changing roles of ministries of culture, Cultural actors in politics, Political interventions in culture);
  2. Culture and Power (Where has the 'Communist underground' gone?, The development of cultural alternatives, Censorship and obstacles to cultural production);
  3. 'High' and 'Low' Culture (The evolution of 'elite' and 'popular' institutions, 'Street' art, theatre, music, graffiti, etc., New developments in underground culture, 'High' and 'low' as political categories);
  4. Inclusions and Exclusions (Inventions and deployments of tradition, Nationalism, Minorities, Women);
  5. Culture and Globalisation (Who are the 'cosmopolitants', what do they do?, The position of ECE in global cultural markets, 'Global' culture in 'local' contexts, The local and the global in art and culture, translocal and intercultural forms);
  6. Democratisation of Culture (Influence of markets on cultural production, Independent publishing, recording, distribution, Possibilities and constraints in the development of democratic culture);
  7. 'Backwardness' and Culture (Urban/rural issues in culture, Culture and technology, The reception of new technologies).

Direct submissions (2 copies) and inquiries by 30 September 1998 to:

Eric Gordy, Department of Sociology, Clark University, 950 Main Street, Worcester, Massachusetts 01610, USA; e-mail: egordy@clarku.edu

Anna Szemere, Department of Sociology, University of California-San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, Department 0533, La Jolla, California 92093, USA; e-mail: aszemere@ucsd.edu

(Source: Newsletter Sozialwissenschaften in Osteuropa, Mai 1998)

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Sweden: Cultural Horizons Project

The Cultural Horizons Project has been established to promote intercultural communication and understanding among young people throughout the world by enabling them to participate directly in creative cross-cultural exchanges. Through the publication of a quarterly magazine, Cultural Horizons: Young Writers and Artists Contributing to Global Understanding, materials for use in the classroom are created by young writers and artists throughout the world.

For more information, please contact: Seth Selleck, Cultural Horizons Foundation, Friaborg High School, P.O.Box 174, 272 24 Simrishamn, Sweden; tel.: +46 (0) 414-17704; fax: +46 (0) 414-17707; e-mail: cultural_horizons@friaborgsskolan.simrishamn.se; URL: http://www.odata.se/hotel/friab/dream.htm

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Based on the respect for linguistic diversity and the desire to promote plurilingual education, UNESCO's LINGUAPAX project is geared towards a culture of peace through the promotion of language teaching methods which integrate fundamental concepts of cooperation and solidarity while eliminating all forms of stereotypes and prejudice. (For World Linguistic Atlas as part of the LINGUAPAX project, see Culturelink no. 24/April 1998, p. 51.) Launched in 1990-91 in the European region, and by now covering Australia, Asia, Latin America and Africa, the project aims to:

  • protect and encourage the awareness of our linguistic heritage, observe the evolution of languages worldwide and promote the safekeeping of endangered languages;
  • advise Member States in the field of linguistic policies and planning, particularly supporting the integration of minority and 'minorized' languages into projects;
  • provide teachers with appropriate pedagogical instruments and materials useful in plurilingual education within a perspective of peace and international understanding.

The methodological approach of LINGUAPAX is based upon a method of intervening directly at levels dealing with decision-making as well as execution and control of the educational system in the fields of language planing, elaboration of curricula for the teaching of mother-tongues and other languages, and training of teachers in languages and social sciences. Taking into account national and regional disparities, this approach allows each training centre and institution to progressively implement the teaching programmes based on the recommendations of LINGUAPAX and elaborated within the spirit of the project. A LINGUAPAX University Network has been created with the aim to spread the project among the teachers who will act as focal points in their specific regions, in order to systematically link education to principles of international cooperation and non-violence. The role of the Network is to create, at university level, 'LINGUAPAX cells' dealing in cultural diversity and linguistic rights, linguistic heritage and intercultural relations, and language didactics and teacher training within the spirit of LINGUAPAX.

For more information, please contact: LINGUAPAX Project, Division of Languages, Education Sector, UNESCO, 7 place de Fontenoy, 75352 Paris 07 SP, France, tel.: +33-1-45 68 09 99, 45 68 17 77; fax: +33-1-45 68 56 22/27; e-mail: am.majlof@unesco.org

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Cultura y Desarrollo - Retos y Estrategias

Programa Nacional Cuba

The Ministry of Culture of the Republic of Cuba has drawn up the Cuban National Programme of Culture and Development, arising from several analyses and reflections on the social and cultural processes taking place in Cuba. Priority is given to setting up a working strategy for defining concepts and ways of managing culture, aiming to speed up these processes creatively, keeping in step with the needs and possibilities of the country.

Beginning in 1989, structural changes were undertaken at the Ministry of Culture, entailing in-depth changes in the managerial concept of cultural processes. The aim was to establish the preconditions for creating an equilibrium between cultural and socio-economic development through cultural institutions serving as basic cells of activity. In recent years, People's Cultural Councils have become active in the field of local cultural development.

As a ruling body of the Cuban State Cultural Policy, with responsibilities for the promotion, implementation and supervision of such policy, as well as the development of programmes and projects in the field of culture, the Ministry of Culture is supported by a network of institutions engaged in cultural heritage, research, professional training, community work, and information resources.

The National Culture and Development Programme includes provisions for the following:

  • conserving, revitalizing and enriching the nation's cultural heritage;
  • strengthening the leading role of the community in cultural creation and its own cultural development;
  • encouraging a creative cultural atmosphere among artists and intellectuals;
  • developing a favourable image of Cuban culture abroad;
  • developing scientific research and cultural activity;
  • promoting the development of a full-fledged information system encompassing national and international cultural dynamics;
  • creating a strategic concept for the development of the human resources; and
  • reinforcing the development of cultural industries in the country, aimed at setting up and strengthening the national market of cultural assets and services, as well as their integration into the international market.

For further information, please contact: Ministry of Culture, Calle 15#754 e/ Paseo y 2, Vedado, Ciudad Habana 10400, Cuba, tel.: (537) 301 000; fax: (537) 301 000; e-mail: csuper@arsoft.cult.cu

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Cultural Diversity Action Plan for the Arts Council of England

Since the Arts Council's last policy initiative, 'Towards Cultural Diversity' (ten years ago), significant changes both in the sector and in the overall cultural landscape have occurred. Therefore, the Council proposed the Cultural Diversity Action Plan, which was unanimously adopted at the end of 1997. It is a five- year action plan in which the funding system should tackle the barriers that exist to equitable development.

The Arts Council's Plan concentrates on four principles: Diversity, Advocacy, Access and Development. The Arts Council should therefore prioritize a coherent monitoring scheme that respects diversity, an advocacy role to increase awareness and inclusion, the firm application of equal opportunities in order to ensure access, and a development strategy for responding to and sustaining diversity.

To obtain the Cultural Diversity Action Plan, please contact: Policy Research and Planning Department, Arts Council of England, 14 Great Peter Street, London SW1P 3NQ, United Kingdom, tel.: 0171-333 0100; fax: 0171 973 6590.

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Research Programme of the Nordic Africa Institute

Cultural Images in and of Africa

The Nordiska Afrikainstitutet in Uppsala was founded in 1962. It serves as a research, documentation and information centre on modern Africa for the Nordic countries. The Institute also encourages research and studies on Africa in the Nordic countries and co-operation between African and Nordic researchers, and disseminates information about current African issues. It is financed jointly by the Nordic countries and governed by a Programme and Research Council.


Culture is a key to understanding the various kinds of development that are created for and by people, but has often been neglected in development studies. The image of Africa is culturally constructed and often reflects the self-images of the beholder.

There is a tendency in the mass media to portray Africa in grim colours, with an emphasis on disasters, wars, famine and general misery. Other important facets are omitted and Africans are often described as helpless victims. Many who have visited and worked in Africa have experienced, in meetings with Africans, a joy of life, patience, lack of stress, cultural diversity and warmth, all of which are not so readily transmitted in the stereotype images of Africa today.

Both the negative stereotypes and possible counter-images need to be studied. There is no need for glossy images, but for encounters that enhance an interest in African life and culture in all its complexity.

The dynamic cultural development in African popular culture and in the fields of literature, art, and theatre is exciting and interesting enough to deserve closer attention in contemporary research on Africa.

Focus of the Project

Three key concepts inform the project: culture, identity, and image. Culture is defined broadly as both 'fine arts' and popular culture, and the emphasis is on contemporary cultural development.

In focus is the contribution of cultural expressions to identity formation, both as we form images of 'the other' and of 'ourselves'.

The programme brings together scholars, students, and people working in non-governmental organisations in the Nordic countries on changing the negative images of Africa, and in cultural interchange with Africa. A survey has been made on the contributions of NGOs in the Nordic countries to bringing culture in various forms from Africa.

An electronic mailing list is open to those who are interested in the project and its themes.

Theme one: Ethnicity and culture

Cultural identity in the form of ethnic identity is a popular theme in the study of Africa and globally. But ethnicity is often understood as basically conflict-generating, while few people study the functional multi-cultural societies in Africa, a theme on which the project wants to encourage research.

The questions of the role and meaning of ethnicity, including the important theoretical debate on the social construction of ethnicity, were the topic of a seminar 'Facing ethnicities in Africa and the world' held in 1995 in Åbo/Turku, Finland, in co-operation with the Centre for Continuing Education at Åbo Akademi.The relationship between the attempts to construct a new positive national identity and the expressions of various cultural identities is still one of the key questions in Africa. South Africa provides an interesting example of a conscious effort to recognize different cultures and languages as equal.

Theme two: Encounter images

When studying identity, the question of how 'us' and 'them' are defined, constructed, maintained or changed will inevitably come to the fore. An additional incentive to study the images of Africa is the remnant of colonial ideology and reflections of a continuing uneven relationship between Africa and Europe.

Theme three: Cultural expressions and cultural workers in contemporary Africa

The next phase of the project will direct attention to the dynamics of contemporary cultural development in Africa. Literature, arts, and theatre, and the role and views of the cultural creators and mediators, will be in the focus. Both 'fine arts' and popular culture will be included. Examples will be sought from the whole of Africa: North, South, East and Central.

The plan is to collect material for a book which will present some of the rich variety and interesting issues in cultural expressions and cultural discourse in modern Africa.

There will be a series of workshops for researchers in the Nordic countries in various cultural fields, such as film, music, literature, theatre, sculpture and painting, handicraft. Links will be established with African scholars and cultural workers.

For enquiries and further information on the project 'Cultural Images in and of Africa', please contact: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet/The Nordic Africa Institute, Dragarbrunnsgatan 24a, Box 1703, SE-751 47 Uppsala, Sweden, tel.: +46-(0)18-56 22 00; fax: +46(0)18-69 56 29; e-mail: nai@nai.uu.se; URL: http://www.nai.uu.se/

Mai Palmberg (co-ordinator) tel: +46-(0)18-56 22 39 (direct); e-mail: Mai.Palmberg@nai.uu.se

Proscovia Svärd (assistant), tel.: +46-(0)18-56 22 16 (direct); e-mail: Proscovia.Svärd@nai.uu.se

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Developing a Youth Arts Framework

The Australia Council has published the first in a series of widely distributed information sheets informing about the development of a youth arts framework by the Council. The framework will look at practical issues relating to young people and the creative arts in Australia, analyzing material relevant to youth issues. This includes:

  • contributions from peers with demonstrated expertise and experience in matters relating to youth arts;
  • statistical research on youth activities and work funded by the Council;
  • review of grants categories and other Council programmes, including general accessibility, assessment mechanisms, etc.;
  • definitions and models of practices such as 'youth arts across artforms';
  • data available from the survey of young artists involved in the Emerging Artists Initiatives;
  • literature searches; and
  • work on youth and audience development.

Later in the year, a discussion paper will be circulated as part of the development process, seeking the advice, input and views of key organizations and individuals in the arts.

Address: The Australia Council, P.O. Box 788, Strawberry Hills, NSW 2012, Australia, tel.: (02) 9950 9000; fax: (02) 9950 9111; e-mail: publicaff@ozco.gov.au; URL: http://www.ozco.gov.au/

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Banff Residency Programmes

The Banff Centre for the Arts, a place for artists and cultural producers dedicated to lifelong learning and professional career development in the arts, offers a number of professional development opportunities with ongoing application deadlines in 1998/99.

Self-Directed Creative Residencies provide contemporary artists, producers, critics, writers and curators with the facilities for research, experimentation and production of artworks and ideas in visual arts, video and interactive media, using ceramics, mixed media, computer arts/interactive media, painting, paper media, performance art, photography, print media, sculpture, textiles, 16-mm film editing, television and video.

Work Study Programmes, lasting between one week and two years, depending on project requirements, cover the areas of media arts - television, and computer applications, curatorial practice, WWW and Internet applications, arts administration, and visual arts. Within each work study area, three programme levels are included, intended for emerging creative technicians possessing basic skills in a particular medium or craft, experienced mid-career professionals wishing to upgrade specific skills or transfer them to other areas, and senior professionals looking for new challenges and opportunities.

Playing a unique role on the Canadian as well as the international level, the Banff Centre for the Arts offers a Television, New Media and Deep Web Co-Productions Programme. It encourages projects that explore the outer limits of creative and technical initiatives in the emerging digital culture, such as CD-ROM, multimedia, interactive video, Internet, the World Wide Web, Web TV, satellite and fibre services. Proposals from independent producers, broadcasters, distributors, artists, interactive companies, galleries and museums will be considered.

Application deadline: Ongoing.

For more information, please contact: The Banff Centre for the Arts, Box 1020, Station 28, 107 Tunnel Mountain Drive, Banff, Alberta, Canada T0L 0C0, tel.: 403-762-6180; fax: 403-762-6345; e-mail: arts_info@banffcentre.ab.ca; URL: http://www.banffcentre.ab.ca/CFAindex.html

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Les Rencontres: Programme of Activities for 1998

Les Rencontres, the Association of European Cities and Regions for Culture, is to organize several events in 1998, covering a variety of themes and art forms of particular and urgent interest to officials. National meetings have also been set up, organized during the Presidency held in turn by each country of the Union.

Thus, in September a Regional Meeting in Austria will bring together Austrian elected officials and some of their neighbours, possibly as part of the Linz European Cultural Month 1998.

Organized in cooperation with the City of Salamanca, the Spanish Federation of Municipalities and Provinces (FEMP) and the City of Vila Franca de Xira (Portugal), the Regional Meeting in Salamanca is to be held on 30 and 31 October, bringing together those in charge of culture in cities and regions of Southern Europe (Spain, Portugal, France, Italy, Greece).

The periodical newsletter will be published to enable elected officials to stay in touch and keep informed on national and European cultural initiatives, specifically those of importance to local authorities. (See also p. 111 in this issue.)

For more information, contact: Les Rencontres, 25 rue Deparcieux, 75014 Paris, France, tel./fax: 33-1-45 38 70 13; e-mail: rencontr@club-internet.fr

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1998 Programme of the Centre Interculturel de Bévoye

Marking its tenth anniversary, the Centre Interculturel de Bévoye has announced its 1998 programme, which includes seminars on themes related to the Internet, music, theatre, and civil service. The Centre, situated at an old farm near the town of Metz, France, serves as a meeting place for young Europeans, offering them an opportunity for an exchange of ideas and common action through international sessions.

For more information, please contact: Centre Interculturel de Bévoye, Chemin de Basse- Bévoye, 57245 Peltre, France, tel.: 03-87 74 56 76; fax: 03-87 74 96 70.

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Theatre for Development: MA/Postgraduate Diploma Course

The School of the Community and Performing Arts, one of six schools of learning at King Alfred's University College of Winchester, UK, offers programmes of study in performing arts and community studies in drama and television. Facilities include a 300-seat theatre, studio theatre, dance studio, extensive video camera provision, and edit suites.

The Graduate School has a strong focus on Action Research, offering an MA/Postgraduate Diploma Course in Theatre for Development. The aim of the programme is to produce development workers who are skilled in using culturally based communications to facilitate the social development of communities. Students gain experience of theatre as a tool for a more effective implementation of developmental goals, fostering group identity, cohesion, and capacity building.

The MA Course forms part of the work of the Centre for Development Communications, which exists to develop courses, research projects, networking, archives, consultancies, and conferences in development communications.

The Master's programme comprises eight modules to be taken over one calendar year (full-time mode) or two or more years (part-time mode), delivered through workshops and seminars with presentations and essays, and through a project conducted in the field.

The MA integrates community drama and theatre practices with development studies. It offers frameworks of communication through which specific groups and communities can further their self-development. The course provides an advanced practical and theoretical forum for students from the South and the North to debate how community drama can be made to work as a tool for development in specific contexts. It aims to promote understanding of the role theatre can play, not only in conveying development messages, but also in enabling communities to represent themselves.

Members of the Drama group are active in exploring the relationship between the performing arts and culture and issues in community drama for development. There is also strong activity in drama pedagogy and in performing arts in education and higher education. The group forms a centre of study for gender issues in the performing arts and places emphasis on multi-culturalism in theory and practice.

Entry requirements include a First or Second Class Honours degree and evidence of a serious interest in theatre for development. For programme enquiries contact Mr. Tim Prentki, Programme Director, at TimP@wkac.ac.uk

The College's Winton Bursaries for International Students are available in a small number and are offered on a competitive basis. Details can be obtained from Darren Murphy, International Development Officer, tel.: +44 1962 827491; fax: +44 1962 827492; or e-mail: MurphyD@wkac.ac.uk

General enquiries to: Stephen Hawes, School of the Community and Performing Arts, tel.: (01962) 827405; e-mail: StephenH@wkac.ac.uk

King Alfred's College of Higher Education, Winchester SO22 4NR, United Kingdom; tel.: (01962) 841515; fax: (01962) 842280; WWW: http://www.wkac.ac.uk/

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LANGUAGE COURSES 1998 contains an overview of regional or minority language courses to be held in Summer 1998 or during the school year 1998/1999.

Information can also be retrieved from the Mercator-Education databank and web-site: www.fa.knaw.nl/mercator

Mercator-Education, Fryske Akademy, Postbus 54, 8900 AB Ljouwert/Leeuwarden, The Netherlands; tel.: +31-58-2131414; fax: +31-58-2131409; e-mail: mercator@fa.knaw.nl