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Council of Europe

Culturelink review, no.26/November 1998 - contents - imprint - archive

Cultural Policies in Europe: A Comparative Approach

by Mario d'Angelo, Paul Vespérini
Council of Europe Publishing, Strasbourg, 1998, 235 pp.,
ISBN 92-871-3391-3

Politiques culturelles en Europe: Une approche comparative

Mario d'Angelo, Paul Vespérini
Editions du Conseil de l'Europe, Strasbourg, 1998, 235 pp.,
ISBN 92-871-3390-5

The Council of Europe has recently published Cultural Policies in Europe: A Comparative Approach, a manual presenting the main tendencies in the evolution of the public administration of culture in Europe. What are the objectives of public policies? How are they organized and financed? Which major sectors do they cover? How do they manage audiences and artists? These and other questions are discussed, based upon the analysis of eight evaluation reports of the cultural policies of Austria, Estonia, Finland, France, Italy, the Netherlands, Russian Federation and Sweden. In this didactic work, the authors give a historic overview of states and national identities, and the evolution of cultural industries, the media, economy, and cultural development. The effects of policies on cultural practices and amateur activities are discussed, as well as the legislative and educational support of artistic creation. Excerpts from the studies and the reports presented by the Council of Europe are published in the Annex.

This publication is the first in a new Education and Training Series, aimed at educators and students of cultural management, as well as decision makers and active participants in the field of European cultural cooperation. The second volume will be devoted to the evaluation of cultural policies, while the third will discuss regional issues and decentralization. The authors work within the framework of IDEE-Europe, a French association specialized in study, research and education covering the cultural and audiovisual sectors.

To obtain the book, please contact: Council of Europe Publishing, Council of Europe, 67075 Strasbourg Cedex, France, tel.: +33 (0)3 88 41 25 81; fax: +33 (0)3 88 41 27 80; e-mail: publishing@coe.fr; WWW: http://book.coe.fr

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Forum of European Cultural Networks/
Forum des réseaux culturels européens

Proceedings/Actes 1997
Strasbourg, Council of Europe, DECS/Cult-Pol/part.(98)1, 1998, 103 pp.

The Council of Europe has published the Proceedings from the Forum of European Cultural Networks meeting held in Brussels on 19 and 20 September 1997, carrying the complete bilingual (English and French) discussions as well as the Manifesto of the European Cultural Networks. In plenary sessions, participants debated reflections and propositions for a revision of Arc-et-Senans 1972 Declaration, based upon the analyses of the Declaration presented by the networks Gulliver, CIRCLE, IETM (Informal European Theatre Meeting), ECA (European Council of Artists), Banlieues d'Europe, EFAH (European Forum for the Arts and Heritage), etc.

Due to its pronounced significance for the future of networking, Culturelink is publishing the entire Manifesto of the European Cultural Networks.

MANIFESTO of the European Cultural Networks

Adopted by the Forum of European Cultural Networks
Brussels, 21st September 1997

The European cultural networks, their contributions and benefits, were acknowledged in a Resolution of the Council of Ministers of Culture in November 1991. European cultural networks:

  • contribute to European cohesion;
  • facilitate the mobility of cultural workers and cultural products;
  • facilitate cross-cultural communication - combatting xenophobia, racism, and providing practice in cross-cultural understanding;
  • reinforce the civil society in giving a democratic voice to the individual;
  • reinforce those cultural dimensions of development which are not produced by purely economic factors;
  • and help build partnerships with so-called 'third countries'.

We believe that the European institutions and the Member States' national, regional and local levels of government must recognise the contributions of European cultural networks through real and meaningful support actions which take into consideration the context and needs of the networks and their functioning.

'A network is a group of individuals who all take responsibility for shared goals'.

'A network is a dynamic system for communication, co-operation and partnership.'

(Definitions by Anne van Otterloo and Michel Bassand, quoted in 'Working Groups: Network Solutions for Cultural Co-operation in Europe', ed. Judith Staines. EFAH/FEAP 1996.)

A network is NOT:

  • a bureaucracy;
  • a hierarchy;
  • a lobby;
  • a private initiative;
  • a temporary project;
  • an association, a federation nor a union;
  • a closed club.

A network is a facilitating structure, an organism. It is a way of organising rather than an organisation. It is the flexibility, the approach, the process, the mentality of a network which creates its special added value. A network is a synergy, it is the multiplying effect itself. A network is a part of the civil society which takes place in the public space.

Networking is an organic development which evolves from the need of individuals to make contact, to exchange and to work together. The energy, information and power of a network flows horizontally and from the bottom up.

European cultural networks provide real benefits to the European social, cultural, political and economic space. Networks are:

  • An important system of facilitating and stimulating employment - they identify and provide work places for trainees, graduates and professionals;
  • A tool for national governments to meet specific strategic cultural needs;
  • A form of on-going professional training for the development of professional skills and expertise within the cultural sector;
  • A cost-effective way of disseminating European trend information about current developments in art forms and practices, to professionals in all parts of the cultural sector, including government;
  • A cost-effective catalyst for stimulating international cultural co-operation.

Within the networks, the professional cultural profile of specific countries and regions is raised and enhanced and a more profound and practical image is disseminated.

Members of European cultural networks are responsible, productive, reflective, pragmatic, engaged and committed. They come from a diversity of cultures, geographical locations and generations. They work with people, ideas and products.

We demand:

Recognition of networks, through real and meaningful support actions and partnerships on all governmental levels in the European Union institutions and in the Member States;

An environment of sustainability which acknowledges that networks grow in value only when they are allowed to continue and flourish;

The provision of structural subsidies which recognise that networks are cost-efficient, labour-saving structures which nevertheless need to pay costs of international co-ordination, communication and mobility;

That the European level institutions take responsibility for the structural co-ordination, communication and mobility costs of trans-border European cultural networks;

That national, regional and local government levels of Member States take responsibility for ensuring that cultural professionals in their own territories can participate in European cultural networking, for supporting the costs of network events and activities in their territories and the costs of network secretariats' located in their territories.

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Freedom of Expression and Communications Networks: Views from Public Access Points

Council of Europe, Strasbourg, 1998, 47 pp.

The Council of Europe has just published a document prepared by Paul Sturges for the Electronic Publishing, Books and Archives Project of the Cultural Policy and Action Division entitled Freedom of Expression and Communications Networks: Views from Public Access Points. Aiming to examine the present state of and prospects for freedom of expression in electronic networks, the report discusses issues posed by the development of the new information technologies and identifies key issues affecting current practice, such as concerns by the book economy regarding the effects of information delivery through electronic networks, possible misuse of widely accessible information, monitoring of electronic communication, and interference with freedom of expression. The report also reflects experiences from the fields of publishing, multimedia and communications industries, the library and information world, and other relevant professional and intellectual domains.

Because of the comparatively unregulated way in which networked information enters the home, library and educational environment, public and official concern is expressed through legislative solutions, filtering and blocking, and self-regulation of the Internet and its use. As the new legislation tends to infringe the basic principle of free expression and is difficult to enforce, while filtering and blocking is not fully acceptable on grounds of principle and practicality, the need for self-regulation of the networks and their content by information providers through codes of practice and public education in the new technologies is obvious.

A list of Web sites offering codes of practice and other documentation devoted to the debate is included.

To obtain the document, please contact: Cultural Policy and Action Division, Council of Europe, F-67075 Strasbourg Cedex, France, tel.: 33 3 88 41 28 84; fax: 33 3 88 41 37 82.

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La politique culturelle de la Fédération de Russie

Conseil de la coopération culturelle
Editions du Conseil de l'Europe, Strasbourg, 1998
408 pp., ISBN 92 871 34502

The Council of Europe has now published the French translation of the Cultural Policy in the Russian Federation, reviewed in the Culturelink Review no. 20/November 1996, pp. 59-61.

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List of documents/Liste de documents

Cultural Policy and Action
Council for Cultural Co-operation, 1998

A selection of some of the documents recently produced by the Cultural Policy and Action Division of the Council of Europe (DECS-4) is now available.

Some of the documents were presented in the Culturelink Review, such as Cultural Policy in Austria, the Netherlands, Russian Federation, Italy, Slovenia, Bulgaria, Lithuania, Croatia; Culture and Neighbourhoods; Culture, Creativity and Young People; New Ideas in Science and Art - Final Acts of the Prague Conference; European Cultural Routes.

Prices indicated in the list are valid until 30 September 1999.

To obtain the list, please contact: Cultural Policy and Action Division, Council of Europe, F-67075 Strasbourg Cedex, France, fax: 33 (0)3 88 41 37 82.