The Governance of Culture: Approaches to Integrated Cultural Planning and Policies
by Anthony Everitt, Cultural Policies Research and Development Unit, Policy Note 5, Council of Europe Publishing, Strasbourg, 1999, 55 pp., ISBN 92-871-4067-7
Vers une gestion culturelle intégrée: pratiques et politiques
par Anthony Everitt, Unité de Recherche et de Développement sur les Politiques Culturelles, Note Politique 5, Editions du Conseil de l'Europe Strasbourg, 61 pp., ISBN 92-871-4066-9
Continuing its Policy Notes series (For previous issues see Culturelink no. 28/August 1999, pp. 35-37.), the Cultural Policies Research and Development Unit of the Council of Europe Cultural Policy and Action Division examines ways of integrating culture into the fabric of public administration. In the latest issue, no. 5, entitled The Governance of Culture: Approaches to Integrated Cultural Planning and Policies, the author, Anthony Everitt, divides culture into three strands, arguing that policies must be matched to the way culture works in society.
In defining a future scenario, the following points are made:
- coordination will be impracticable without the establishment of a comprehensive planning regime, and may not win the support of public officials who will have to implement holistic policies;
- cultural policy should recognize both the four principles - promotion of cultural identity, diversity, participation and creativity - and the priorities of the day;
- governments need to decide whether to implement cultural policy by means of a project-based approach or through structural reform;
- the delivery of strategy will depend on the good will of the artistic community.
New 'horizontal' forms of public administration are required in order to make it possible to implement strategies for the arts and culture effectively. Reviewing examples of good practice in a number of European countries, the publication makes practical suggestions designed to help decision-makers to move towards an integrated system of governance.
The forthcoming issues in the Policy Notes series will include the following:
No. 6 - Rod Fisher: Culture and civil society: new partnerships with the third sector
No. 7 - National cultural institutions in transition: 'désétatisation' and privatisation
No. 8 - Andy Feist: Cultural employment
No. 9 - Rossen Milev: Intercultural communication.
Copies can be ordered from: Cultural Policies Research and Development Unit, Council of Europe, F-67075 Strasbourg Cedex, France, fax: +33 (0) 388 413782; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, http://culture.coe.fr/clt/rdu/eng/ecurdu0.htm and http://book.coe.fr
EURIMAGES of the Council of Europe - support of feature films and documentaries.
Deadlines: 24 May, 18 August and 13 October 2000.
e-mail: Eurimages@coe.fr, http://culture.coe.fr/Eurimages
The Compendium Launched!
Cultural Policies in Europe: A Compendium of Basic Facts and Trends
commissioned by the
Cultural Policies Research and Development Unit of the Council of Europe
and produced by the
Secretariat of the European Research Institute for Comparative Cultural Policy and the Arts (ERICArts)
- a concise reference work on cultural policies in Europe
- loose-leaf and web version
- 14 up-to-date Country Profiles currently available
- work in progress - eight new country profiles per year planned
- to include all 47 states collaborating within the framework of the European Cultural Convention
- latest updates via electronic version at http://www.culturalpolicies.net/
- systematic approach to:
historical or administrative context
facts and figures
- descendent of the Programme of National Cultural Policy Reviews
- model for cultural co-operation within the Council of Europe
up-to-date, accessible, flexible
Cultural researchers, policy makers, administrators, cultural workers in international organisations, associations or networks, students, artists, journalists... read it, study it, compare the facts!
Address: Cultural Policies Research and Development Unit, Council of Europe, F-67075 Strasbourg Cedex, France; fax: +33 (0) 388 413782; e-mail: email@example.com
Europe, a Common Heritage Campaign
Europe, a common heritage: why such a campaign?
The European heritage (The notion of 'heritage', as used in this campaign, includes not only the movable and immovable heritage, i.e., the built environment, sites and landscapes or objets d'art, but also the non material heritage, such as ethical or spiritual values, ethnical traditions, social customs, knowledge and know-how.) forms both the collective memory and the inheritance of the European continent. It is our common property. As an integral part of our history, it is essential to tolerance and understanding between peoples. It must become the prime instrument for fostering knowledge and mutual recognition among European communities. As Walter Schwimmer, Secretary General of the Council of Europe, said recently: "Cultural heritage does not divide us - on the contrary, it is a means to make us aware of the complexity of our relationships. Cultural heritage, whether in the context of material objects or in the context of intellectual, ethical or spiritual values, must not be abused as a justification to glorify particular identities or to promote nationalist views. On the contrary, it should enhance mutual knowledge and understanding between communities."
The heritage is also an important factor of sustainable economic and social development: the rehabilitation of an urban neighbourhood not only gives its inhabitants a sense of identity but also stimulates activity.
This is why the Council of Europe decided to launch a campaign entitled Europe, a Common Heritage, which translates into action the declarations of the Heads of State and Government who, at the two Council of Europe Summits (Vienna 1993 and Strasbourg 1997), stressed the contribution of 'a common cultural heritage enriched by its diversity' in the construction 'of a vast area of democratic security in Europe' (Final Declaration of the Vienna Summit, 9 October 1993) and the importance attached to 'the protection of our European cultural and natural heritage and to the promotion of awareness of this heritage' (Final Declaration of the Strasbourg Summit, 11 October 1997). It was during the Strasbourg Summit that the Heads of State and Government decided to organise such a campaign. The campaign, which will last 12 months, was officially launched in Bucharest (Romania) from 10 to 13 September 1999 and the closing ceremony will take place in Riga (Latvia) in December 2000. Its results will be presented in Portoroz (Slovenia) from 6 to 7 April 2001, probably at a ministerial conference.
The campaign is taking place at a special point in the Council of Europe's history - the organisation celebrated its 50th anniversary in 1999 - and 25 years after the European Architectural Heritage Year, which marked the beginning of the Council of Europe's heritage activities and gave rise to the founding texts now enshrined in the Granada and Malta Conventions. Finally, it follows on from the European Nature Conservation Year (ENCY 1995) and builds on the Bern Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats, as well as the Pan-European Biological and Landscape Diversity Strategy.
The campaign is also a showcase for the Council of Europe's know-how in the preservation of cultural heritage. Drawing on its 25 years of experience in this field, the organisation has made a detailed analysis of the concept of cultural heritage and its implications, and there is now a fully-fledged Council of Europe philosophy in this area. Since 1975 three main activities have been developed:
- devising heritage policies (including heritage protection across borders and its sustainable development);
- training heritage professionals and educating the public;
- technical co-operation and assistance.
Within the framework of the 'Europe, a common heritage' campaign, prospective thinking was set up with a view to re-centring the concept of heritage and the functions that society attaches to this heritage in Europe over the next few decades. This undertaking is justifiable, coming as it does 30 years after the setting up of European co-operation, at a time when the organisation is enlarging its activities to a pan-European level and new ways to communicate and create are offered by the information society. Such a study should take account of trends emerging in society at large and should not only have a bearing on the role of heritage as a social link between individuals and the various countries' cultural communities but also on the contribution that heritage values can bring to European construction and to a new 'Culture of Development'.
A Campaign for all Europeans
The campaign involves the 41 member states of the Council of Europe, six other countries that have signed the Cultural Convention (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Holy See, and Monaco), the states with observer status under the Convention, the European Union, and international governmental or non-governmental organisations active in the field of cultural and natural heritage. Each country participates through a national committee or similar body. The campaign concerns all Europeans and aims to make them more aware of the wealth and importance of heritage as a vector of tolerance, knowledge and mutual recognition. It should also promote a sense of a common belonging, an aspiration to cultural exchanges and an incentive to the discovery of differences, especially for young people. It is also intended to arouse a sense of responsibility for its protection in the European public. The campaign is also geared towards heritage professionals. In addition to its cultural, historical and aesthetic value, the heritage is also an economic asset, a source of employment and local development.
Educating and mobilising European public opinion and arousing a sense of responsibility
With a view to educating and mobilising European public opinion and arousing a sense of responsibility, the Council of Europe has set in motion throughout Europe a process which will encourage states to take national, regional and local initiatives in this area. The impetus provided by the Council of Europe is provided not only by the campaign message but also by four complementary types of activity:
- major international events attracting media coverage at different stages of the campaign, e.g., the conference on 'Democratic development, market economy and cultural heritage protection', which will be held in Tbilisi in autumn 2000;
- transnational projects involving several countries, e.g., the heritage of tourism and travel, the ancient universities route and the wooden towns of historical interest projects, the international photography competition, etc.;
- debates, such as the one on housing rehabilitation in old city centres as a factor of social cohesion and economic development (Lisbon, April 1999 - September 2000), or the International Forum on 'the illicit trafficking of cultural property' (Strasbourg, November 2000);
- national, regional or local projects for the protection of a historical monument, a cultural or natural site, for example, the craft routes in the area surrounding Vilnius (Lithuania), the first stage of the crafts route.
The campaign message is designed to bring together the largest possible number of protagonists. It calls on the support of local authorities, public and private property-owners' associations, non-profit making organisations and business associations, and aims to mobilise non-governmental organisations, community and professional circles and the media.
Web site: http://culture.coe.fr/patrimonium