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Research and Programmes

Culturelink review, no.31/August 2000 - contents - imprint - archive

Canadian Culture in the Twenty-First Century

Milliken Mills High School, Markham, Canada

As teachers, students and people in the cultural field search for effective methods and techniques to teach and learn about culture and cultures in general and their own culture in particular, a project at Milliken Mills High School in Markham, Canada, may provide a useful model.

The project took place between September 1999 and January 2000 and was a collaborative undertaking involving Milliken Mills High School, the York Region District School Board, York University, and the World Culture Project. The purpose of the project was to provide students in their senior year of high school with opportunities to learn about Canadian culture and develop detailed plans with respect to how they would like to see their culture develop in the future.

As stated in the prospectus for the project, 'As Canada prepares to enter the twenty-first century, the future is very uncertain. The major problem seems to be the lack of a clear, comprehensive vision of how Canadian culture should grow and prosper in the changing world of the future. Factors such as globalization, free trade, regional and cultural relationships and the increasing multicultural and multiracial nature of Canadian society, along with other factors, are bound to impact this vision. The Senior Symposium aims to challenge students to investigate the richness of their cultural, political and social heritage and to apply their learning to develop practical action plans for realizing their visions. By doing so, a major step will be taken towards developing a renewed appreciation for what we are privileged to share as Canadians among young citizens and ensure the survival of our traditions of freedom and inclusion for future generations.'

A number of general and specific objectives were established for the project. Included among the general objectives were:

  • to provide students with opportunities to study Canadian culture from an historical, contemporary, and future perspective;
  • to examine Canadian culture as a whole;
  • to facilitate understanding of key relationships between the component parts of Canadian culture;
  • to provide a useful context for situating subjects and courses of study.

Included among the specific objectives were:

  • to enhance media, literacy, learning, research, information, communication and Internet skills;
  • to foster links between a variety of educational partners;
  • to provide a cultural context for new Canadians;
  • to enhance existing curriculum needs and requirements.

In order to facilitate understanding of Canadian culture as a whole, the country's culture was divided into eight parts. The parts were: Foreign Policy; Canada's First Nations; Economic and Social Policy; Environmental Policy; Artistic and Cultural Industries Policy; Human Rights; National Unity; and Education Policy. A number of 'focus questions' were asked in each area to guide discussion and facilitate research.

In the area of Artistic and Cultural Industries Policy, for example, the following focus questions were asked: Does Canadian culture need regulatory protection from globalization and Americanization? Should the principle of free trade be extended to culture (culture is presently excluded from the North American Free Trade Agreement although there is pressure to include it)? To what extent is society responsible for subsidizing the arts and cultural industries? Does who pays matter?

Authorities from York University and the cultural field were brought in to provide presentations on Canadian culture and the focus areas during October and November 1999. The focus was on Canadian culture as a whole, as well as the relationships and linkages that exist - or do not exist - between the component parts of Canadian culture.

Students had an opportunity to present and debate their action plans at the culminating event on 13 January 2000. Included among the many recommendations contained in their action plans were proposals to: strengthen Canada's environmental laws regarding sustainable development, water protection and disposal of by products from industrial wastes; withdraw from the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA); place more emphasis on teaching Canadian history in the educational system; provide cultural and history classes for new Canadians; increase Canadian content on television; ensure greater accessibility and affordability in post-secondary education; provide tax credits for cultural producers; guarantee stable funding for the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation; improve the situation of the First Nations and homeless people; deal more effectively with the needs of children and young people; and increase Canada's presence on the Internet through more Canadian search engines and home pages. As one student put it, 'in order to tell the world who we are, we must first learn who we are. If there is no mention of Canada in the electronic media, Canada will vanish into cyberspace.'

Plans are underway to develop 'prototype packages' which can document the process in detail. These packages will be made available to teachers, students, schools and communities in Canada and elsewhere interested in facilitating knowledge and understanding of their culture and the way they would like to see it develop in the new millennium.

What makes the Milliken Mills project unique is not only the focus on Canadian culture as a whole, as well as the opportunity it provided for students to determine how they would like the country's culture to develop in the future. Milliken Mills is a high school with an extremely diverse student body - a real 'United Nations', with over fifty languages spoken, as one participant put it. This, combined with the fact that the project involved teachers, students, a secondary school, a district school board, a university and a non-governmental organization, suggest that it may serve a useful purpose for other educational jurisdictions interested in broadening and deepening understanding of culture and cultures in general and their own culture in particular.

For more information, please contact: Mike Clare, Head, Department of History, Milliken Mills High School, 7522 Kennedy Road, Unionville, Ontario, Canada, L3R 9S5; tel.: 905-477-0072; e-mail: mclare@mmhs.markham.on.ca; or
D. Paul Schafer, Director, World Culture Project, 19 Sir Gawaine Place, Markham, Ontario, Canada, L3P 3A1; tel.: 905-471-1342; e-mail: dpaulschafer@sympatico.ca

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MedCult

The MedCult project is a tool for transregional perspectives of the media, journalism and culture. The areas of media and culture not only make a significant contribution to the quality of life in a region but also have the ability to influence its employment and growth potential. The EUROMOVE region (EUROMOVE stands for the 'European Region on the Move', which creates a platform for dialogue and cooperation in the Czech, Slovak, Hungarian and Austrian border regions) has a long history of cultural and socio-economic cooperation that came to an end with the appearance of the iron curtain some fifty years ago. The MedCult project focuses on bridging this historical gap and therefore looks at the creative and media-based potential and analyzes the possibilities of establishing EUROMOVE as a highly integrated media-, culture-, and economic region.

The main goal of the MedCult project is to use cooperation in the area of media and culture as a mechanism for the development of joint activities in the EUROMOVE region.

The main activities are:

  • Research and analysis of media and culture sectors and activities in the EUROMOVE region;
  • Presentation of research information to allow a quick and easy use of research results;
  • Identification of possible areas of cooperation and opportunities for structural improvements;
  • Design of specific information packages to facilitate the conception, development and support of trans-regional culture and media projects.

The knowledge gathered through these activities is disseminated through info-letters that report on current developments in the field, as well as through the Internet. Also, discussion platforms are in the process of being set up.

All players in the area of media and culture are invited to help in creating a common future for the region.

For more information, please contact: Project Management, Regional Consulting, Schlossgasse 11, A-1050 Vienna, Austria, tel.: +43 1 585 85 10; fax: +43 1 585 85 10-30; e-mail: rc@regcon.co.at; http://www.euromove.net

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Trends in Education in Brazil and their Relationship with Art Education

by Ayrton Dutra Correa
(Professor of Art Education, Federal University of Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil; e-mail: ayrcor@ce.ufsm.br)

The Educational System and Educational Tendencies

To talk about education in Brazil is a difficult task, because of the regional diversity of this country of continental proportions. The regions differ climatically, geographically and culturally and the educational systems reflect this.

In Brazil, students of education in universities typically learn about two main educational tendencies, as proposed by Dermeval Saviani, a professor at the University of Campinas (UNICAMP), and José Carlos Libâneo based at the Federal University of Goias. They learn that pedagogy is underpinned either by (a) Non-Critical and (b) Critical Tendencies.

Figure 1 - Trends in Brazilian Education

Tendency Pedagogy Origin Dates
Non-Critical Traditional Portugal Jesuits Catholic Schools of Europe 1540-1930
  Progressivist USA 1932-1964
  Technicist USA 1965-Present
Critical Liberating Brazil
Paulo Freire
1950-Present
  Libertarian Italian Anarchism Never goes into schools
  Social Content France
Georges Snyders
1982-Present

Non-critical tendencies pertain to so-called Liberal Pedagogy. Liberal Pedagogy promotes the view that the main function of the school is to prepare individuals to fit into society according to their individual capacities. In order to do this, individuals need to learn to adapt to the values and rules of present day class society and to develop their individual interests. There are three non-critical tendencies known as (a) Traditional Pedagogy, (b) New School Pedagogy, and (c) Technicist Pedagogy.

Critical Tendencies begin with a critical analysis of the social reality and implicitly adopt social-political educational aims. The work of the teachers starts with an analysis of their school and their students' social-historical context (place of origin, dress, language, social class, ethnicity, cultural capital, world view, etc.), the socialisation of knowledge and knowledge production. They are expected to appropriate and apply in their teaching the knowledge accumulated from this analysis in a critical and creative way. There are three kinds of critical tendency classified as (a) Liberating, (b) Libertarian, and (c) Social-critical in Terms of Content. These are sometimes called non-dominant theories, owing to the political character that permeates them.

I will briefly discuss the non-critical methodological orientations, and the main emphasis will be placed on critical pedagogy and practice, because it supports transformationist visions of Brazilian society and education.

Non-critical Tendencies

Traditional Pedagogy

This liberal orientation is characterised by an emphasis on humanistic philosophy, in which the student is educated to reach, through his/her own effort, his/her full potential as a human being. In this orientation the content of education, didactics and teacher-student relationships do not connect with the student's daily routine, nor with the social reality. The teacher's words and ideas dominate the classroom situation and pedagogy consists of imposed rules and academic knowledge that is reproduced exclusively for intellectual purposes. The teaching-learning process does not vary, since the cultural route the teacher takes towards knowledge is the same for all students, provided they make the effort. Less capable students must fight to overcome their difficulties and find a way to keep up with the more capable ones. If they cannot do this, they must drop out of this kind of curriculum and take up a more technical one (Libâneo, 1991). In this orientation, social problems are understood to belong to society and are not addressed in school.

Unfortunately, this kind of pedagogy is still alive and in use in Brazilian schools, especially in those religious and lay schools which adopt a humanistic-classical orientation and in which the teacher's views dominate. This tendency began with the Jesuits in 1540 and was influential right up to the 1950s. In Art Education, the activities are extremely connected with copies of the natural world, especially landscapes, vases of flowers, and post cards.

Progressivist School

In the 1930s, a group of professors in several Brazilian universities (especially Fernando de Azevedo and Lourenco Filho and Anizio de Teixeira) pioneered the New Liberal tendency, which stresses, simultaneously, the sense of culture and the development of individual aptitudes. Their ideas came from the USA and especially from John Dewey. Unlike traditional pedagogy, the new school views education as an internal process, not an external one; they believe it starts from the individual's needs and interests which must be adapted to the environment. Education is present in everyday life and forms part of the life experience itself. This orientation proposes a form of education that values self-learning and direct experience of the environment through practical activities (e.g., planting seeds in the classroom and watching them grow); teaching centres on the individual student's needs and interests and those of the whole class. Active participation and experimentation are dominant in this approach.

In this orientation, it is argued that the school must provide school experiences that allow the student to educate himself/herself through an active process of construction and reconstruction of reality and through interaction between the cognitivist structures of an individual's mind and of the environmental forces (Libâneo, 1991).

The New School brought a new way of thinking about education in Brazil. Although it resulted in many studies and much debate, it did not become predominant in practice, owing to the resistance of the Catholic schools that supported more conservative traditions. Only at the end of the fifties was an agreement reached between the pioneers of new education and Catholic Schools to change the educational system. However, in 1964, there was a change in the political regime in Brazil and the military dictatorship abandoned New Pedagogy in favour of a technicist model of pedagogy.

Thus, in Brazil we have never really practised New Pedagogy, other than in isolated experiments in the 1930s. They took place mainly in private schools and later on in some Catholic schools. Because Brazil is a continent, the effects of these experiments have been minimal given the scale and scope of the system as a whole.

Now, in activities of visual art, students are transformed into researchers. They collect new materials for the construction of their task. However, the classical activities of painting and drawing have been preserved. Studies of perspective have been introduced. Academic studies are predominant.

Technicist Pedagogy

In the early 1970s, the new military government was persuaded by American researchers that the Brazilian educational system was failing and should be revised drastically to make it less European and more North American in approach. The technicist methodological tendencies started with Law 5692 passed by the government in 1971. This abolished the previous curriculum completely and reduced the content of the curriculum in line with the American ideology of 'learning by doing' (Skinner 1974, Bloom 1977, Mager 1976, Kaufmann 1975, and Chadwick 1978). Since the ministries of education in all the various regions in Brazil had to follow this law, it had a very strong impact on the system as a whole. Law 5540 organized in 1968 and passed by the government in 1972 was created for the Tertiary Level also. Thus, the university system was modified completely.

In this new approach, the curriculum became essentially technicist. Learning activities were planned in advance by teachers. The technicist orientation promotes the use of new technologies and educational media for learning and bases learning activities in the formulation of behavioural objectives for specified educational outcomes. Schooling is viewed as a business in which training and control are dominant and technical aspects of teaching and learning are afforded priority. Educational technology is used to develop many teaching techniques, especially for individualised learning and programmed teaching.

This kind of pedagogy falsely assumes that scientific neutrality is possible. It is inspired by principles of rationality, efficiency and productivity. It advocates the reform of the educational process, so as to make it more objective and efficient operationally (Saviani, 1990). The students, in this orientation, are viewed as the product of an educational business which determines their behaviour. Individuals have to perform the role that capitalist society expects of them - namely, to acquire the abilities, attitudes, and specific knowledge that capitalism demands and to integrate themselves into the global economic and social system.

This kind of pedagogy was commonplace in Brazilian schools in the 1990s. However, the technicism of the 1970s was very different from presentday technicism because of developments in educational technology .

The technique aspect is very important in this approach. Students must be careful in which technique they work, because it is necessary to observe the technique of elaboration. American theories predominate, like Rudolf Arnheim's Art as visual perception (1974). The results of work must be perfect. Today, with the advent of the computer, the possibilities of techniques are obvious, with specific programmes for visual arts.

Critical Tendencies

Liberating Pedagogy

The creator of this approach was Paulo Freire, who, in the 1950s, developed a specific pedagogy for adult learners working in the sugar factories at Pernambuco with a naive or ingenuous vision of the world.

It is not common for Liberating Pedagogy to concern itself with formal schooling, because it associates education with in-formal learning systems. Paulo Freire, who is considered the originator of a purely Brazilian Progressivist Methodology, took part in the Popular Culture movement in Brazil in the 1960s, when he created a specific method of teaching illiterate peasants to read and write. This kind of pedagogy was called Teaching the Practice of Freedom.

Around 1964, the Popular Culture movement contributed to the elaboration of what Paulo Freire called the 'true culture', a culture which - he explained - is grounded in motivation to learn arising from experience. In this view, teaching becomes a form of work with the aim of enabling the participation of the people in a cultural process, for the first time as subjects (Mizukami, 1991).

Paulo Freire's ideas fused together different theoretical tendencies, such as humanism, phenomenology, existentialism and neo-Marxism. His orientation places man at the centre of the educational process, and although it attaches importance to the subject matter of education, it proposes an interactionist approach in which the students and the teacher explore the socio-cultural context in order to transform learning with others. It argues that interaction between man-world and subject-object is vital so that humans can develop intellectually and politically and become the agents of their own praxis. In this view, there are no men other than concrete ones (living in the historic moment), situated in time and space, inserted in a particular social-economic, cultural and political context, which is, after all, a historical context.

Man as subject (not as object) gets to be a subject through observation of, and reflection on, his own concrete environment, thereby enabling intervention in reality so as to change it. Freire's work was always centred in the concept of culture, which he believed was the result of human activity, of men's and women's creative and re-creative efforts to establish the world and dialogical relations with other men (Mizukami, 1991). The participation of man as subject in society, culture and history can only occur if an individual has a developed self-consciousness, which implies both de-mystification and de-mythification. This happens through teaching people to read and write, in the sense of making them conscious of themselves and their rights and duties in relation to their country.

The content of teaching in this tendency centres on the concept of 'generating words', which are taken from the 'word universe' of the student. Any content that is not linked to the student's socio-cultural context is considered a cultural invasion or 'information deposit'. After learning the orthography common to the group, generating texts appear and are elaborated on by the students themselves. This learning approach always has a strong political character of emancipation and a tendency towards autonomy. The individual is taught to read, write and think politically simultaneously.

Dialogue is the main teaching technique, or what Paulo Freire calls 'dialogicidade'. It is only through dialogue, Liberating Theory suggests, that active engagement between educator and student, mediated by the environment, can take place. In this kind of pedagogy it is the group which makes the decisions and manages learning, defining the content and the dynamics of all educational activities. The teacher is a facilitator who works alongside his or her students, without interfering too much, although he/she can provide more sophisticated knowledge and information if necessary.

The evaluation of student learning is a group activity and consists of teachers and students mutually evaluating their work and each other's ideas in a process of interaction. The teacher is not the only evaluator: they all evaluate the learning together using their life experiences.

Starting in the late 1980s, the aims and methodology of Liberating Pedagogy were adapted to formal schooling. In formal school curricula teachers began to draw on their students' life experiences and the socio economic context, as well their cultural capital and world-view. In his last book, published in 1998, called Pedagogy of Autonomy: Necessary knowledge for educational practice, Freire established some important principles for contemporary practice, which include the following:

  • Teaching necessitates risk, the acceptance of the new and rejection of any form of discrimination;
  • Teaching does not mean transferring knowledge, but creating possibilities for knowledge production or construction;
  • Teaching demands apprehension of reality and the view that learning is a creative adventure: it is more concerned with risk taking than repetition;
  • Teaching necessitates the ability to listen and the desire to engage in dialogue;
  • Teaching is linked to happiness and hope;
  • Teaching necessitates understanding that education is an intervention in the world;
  • Teaching is about freedom and authority.

Teachers operating with these premises are expected to positively contribute to helping their students' self development. Freire (1998) points out that it is not the case that an education practised this way - with affection and love - is unreliable, unscientific or apolitical. Pedagogy embraces all this - affection, happiness, scientific ability, and technical command in the service of the change. Freire shows that a pedagogy that is essentially based in dialogue, in a form of communication which situates man and woman as a critical participant of the world, is a continuous process of creation-recreation. Thus, education is integrated into men's and women's relations among themselves and is mediated by the world. According to the artistic construction, this tendency is necessary in the critical approach and in the building of a context of relations in the production of art, as much in primary or secondary school as in the university.

Libertarian Tendencies

For José Carlos Libâneo (1991), Libertarian Pedagogy anticipates that schooling will produce a change in the student's personality in a libertarian and self-management sense. The basic idea is to introduce institutional change in education from the bottom up, in a way that will contaminate the present system. Individual schools establish the content of the curriculum and methods of learning through group decision-making and bringing their own mechanisms of institutional change. These decisions about change may be reached through group gatherings, councils, elections, meetings, associations, etc., after which the knowledge gained is taken out into the locality and communicated to others.

Libertarian theorists argue that the bureaucratic structures of the existing institutions jeopardise personal growth because of their impersonal nature. Their emphasis on informal learning through the group and denial of any sort of repression has as its main purpose the development of a freer people. Thus, their motivation lies in the interest of individual growth within a legal group experience, for it is through this experience that the group gives a chance to each one of its members to fulfil himself or herself. It is a form of pedagogical practice that is coated with a strong political character which has anarchist tendencies. In Brazil, this tendency has never reached the school system and remains largely an academic concern of a few university professors. This tendency is impossible in Art Education because it is very political, to an extent not acceptable to schools.

Social-critical Tendency of Content

This tendency, which reached Brazil in the 1980s, is mainly restricted to universities and is influenced strongly by the ideas of Georges Snyders, a French researcher. Education from the point of view of the Pedagogy of Social Content emphasizes the need for learners to develop their capacity to process social information, deal with environmental stimuli, and organise data arising from experience. As a result, teaching adopts the principle of meaningful learning, which has as its starting point checking what the student already knows about society. The teacher needs to know how to recognise what the student says or does in society, and the student needs to understand what the teacher is trying to say to him. Learning transfer happens from the moment of synthesis, that is, when the student overcomes his/her misunderstanding of the content and achieves full understanding (Libâneo, 1991).

As Snyders emphasises (in Libâneo, 1991), the teacher's role focuses on facilitating his/her students' access to the social content and connecting it to their real life experience. But in another way it is concerned with providing a means to engage in the kind of critical analysis that can enable students to transcend common-sense assumptions arising from experience, counter stereotypes, and rupture or diffuse the pressures of dominant ideology.

The teacher's work is to relate the student's personal experience to the social content that he/she proposes in a discovery approach to learning, at which time a rupture happens and the student initiates his own learning. Such a rupture is only possible through a clear introduction by the teacher of new social content (e.g., exploitation, poverty, racism) and ways in which the students can address these issues in their future lives.

In this view, the science of education must centre itself on the analysis of real situations in life, concrete needs and concrete human interests, as well as the contradictions in society and social conflicts. Where this happens, there will be concrete teachers, concrete students, concrete didactics, etc. In this sense, Saviani (1990) shows that, above all, this theory is concerned with man and woman in the social context, that is with man as a synthesis of multiple determinants and in a set of social relations.

Conflict Pedagogy is another very important trend within this orientation. According to Gadotti (1987), the main sociological concern of this tendency is to explain the power phenomenon, social change and the contradictions that characterise the formation and action of social groups, human organisations and society as a whole. In this approach, conflict is encouraged in the classroom in order to develop the students' critical abilities and to illustrate contradictions in the educational system through increased consciousness. Non-critical schooling, on the other hand, works with a pedagogy of consensus, and its main themes are balance, control and harmony.

Social Content pedagogy proceeds from a historical analysis of the social context in which the educational process happens and the social events that act on the individual actually occur. Critical pedagogical practice of this kind places the individual at the centre of the universe and, from this position, seeks to establish democratic relations of reciprocity, in which man searches for the means to create a citizen of himself in society and give his longings back to it. As Saviani says, it is the appropriation /dispossession/ of knowledge.

A dialectical teaching method is the most appropriate one for this tendency, because it facilitates the understanding of relationships between education and concrete processes of reality, that is, relationships between the concrete and the abstract, the dialectic between logical and historical thinking and theory and practice. In this way, progressivist pedagogy starts from a critical analysis of social reality and supports the social-political purposes of education.

Libâneo (1991) states that, in this orientation, the teacher's work consists of performing an educational act that measures the process through which the student is able to appropriate knowledge of his/her culture and of the dominant culture, and can develop from a common sense to a more complex critical level of understanding of the democratic process.

Artistic work in this tendency reflects the context of the students. Contemporary art is very versatile, but painting, sculpture and installation are predominant. Post Modernism emphasizes the school.

Final Considerations

With all its diversity, Brazilian education is going through a period of genuine debate and change. Especially now, because of a new law that was passed in 1996 (called LDB 9394/96), which introduced a national system of Curricula Standards into schools. The Government has issued statutory orders pertaining to the way the content of each school discipline should be taught. But although it is a new law, the educational tendencies that it promotes are the same as before.

However, even before these standards were implemented, applied research was already under way in various universities designed to improve the quality of teaching in Brazilian schools. Possibly new methodologies will appear, but at the moment they are merely being discussed.

References

Bloom, B.S. (1977). Taxionomias de objetivos educacionais. Porto Alegre: Globo.

Chadwick, Clifton (1978). Tecnologia Educacional para el docente. Buenos Aires: Paidos.

Freire, Paulo (1998). Pedagogia da Autonomia: saberes necessarios a pratica educativa. Rio de Janeiro: Paz e Terra.

Gadotti, Moacir (1987). Concepçao dialetica da educacao. Sao Paulo: Cortez.

Libâneo, José Carlos(1991). Democratizacao da Escola Publica. Sao Paulo: Loyola.

Kaufmann, R.A. (1975). Planificación de sistemas educativos. Mexico: Trillas.

Mager, Robert (1976). A formulação de objetivos de ensino. Porto Alegre: Globo.

Mizukami, Maria das Gracas (1991). Ensino as abordagens do processo. Sao Paulo: EPU.

Saviani, Dermeval (1990). Escola e Democracia. Sao Paulo: Cortez.

Skinner, B.F. (1974). Ciência e Comportamento Humano. São Paulo: EDART/EDUSP.

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Arts and Cultural Management and Policy

Postgraduate Degrees at City University

You might be interested to know about the postgraduate courses offered by the Department of Arts Policy and Management, City University. City University is located in the City of London, one of the financial and cultural powerhouses of the world, and above the Barbican Arts Centre, itself one of the leading arts centres of Europe.

City's courses cover the whole range of skills and knowledge that are relevant to managers and administrators in the arts and cultural sector who want to develop their careers further. You can choose from the following courses:

  • MA in Arts Management,
  • MA in Museum and Gallery Management,
  • MA in Arts Criticism,
  • MA in Arts Criticism and Management,
  • Postgraduate Diploma in Cultural Management.

Typical areas of study in any of the above courses are, for example, management, marketing, cultural policies, and management studies that are specific to the performing arts, visual arts, or the cultural and creative industries.

Each year the Department welcomes students from 30 different nationalities and responds to this diverse constituency by focusing on the arts and cultural realities not only of the United Kingdom but also of other countries in Europe, the Americas, and Asia.

Further information about the Department, its work and its staff can also be found on the Department's web site at http://www.city.ac.uk/artspol/, from where an application form can be downloaded.

If you would like any other information or a brochure and application form, just reply to this message or e-mail at the following address: u.k.richards@city.ac.uk

Alternatively you can telephone on: +44 20 7477 8751.

For more information, please contact: Ursula Richards, Admissions Officer, Department of Arts Policy and Management, City University, Barbican Centre, London EC2Y 8HB, United Kingdom.

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The European Management Programme for the Arts and Media

Salzburg, 2000-2001

Organized by the Internationales Zentrum für Kultur und Management (International Centre for Culture and Management, ICCM) in cooperation with the University of Linz in a slightly refreshed format, with an even stronger orientation towards practical and teamwork, the two-year European Management Programme for the Arts and Media now offers three core programmes covering the following themes:

  • Culture and Arts Organizations - organizational development, financial management and programming of various events and institutions in the field of art and cultural heritage;
  • Publishing and Copyright - planning, production and marketing of publications such as books, periodicals, newspapers and magazines, as well as development, production and design of websites, e-zines, audio CDs and CD-ROMs, DVDs; and
  • Entrepreneurship and Creative Business - cultural, scholastic, legal and political aspects of numerous cultural industries, such as POP-culture, electronic culture, design, film, or gastronomy.

This creative modular part-time educational programme promotes active self-governed knowledge management through project-oriented work in knowledge spaces, core workshops, labs, theme parks, fora and project workshops, with an aim to train leaders and project managers in the field of art, culture and the media. The programme is intended for bachelors of art with work experience in the field of culture and the media, leading cultural and media managers, sponsoring and event marketing professionals from the business field, as well as public relations managers, artists, designers, architects and cultural workers and publicists. An internationally recognized diploma of Master of Advanced Studies in Arts and Media Management (MAS) is awarded.

Course languages are German and English. Application forms are available via the Internet.

For further information, please contact: Herwig Pöschl, International Centre for Culture and Management (ICCM), Jakob Haringerstrasse 5A, A-5020 Salzburg, Austria, tel.: 0662/459 841; fax: 0662/459 838; http://www.iccm.co.at

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Banff Centre Arts Residencies

The Banff Centre for the Arts again organizes residencies for artists to be held in Banff, Canada. (See Culturelink no. 25/August 1998, p. 39.) This time, creative projects will be supported on the subject of Media and Visual Arts within the co-productions programme, in the areas of television, interactive media, multimedia and related research. The next four terms are available:

  • September to December 2000;
  • January to April 2001;
  • May to August 2001;
  • September to December 2001.

A variety of platforms may be involved by bringing together the arts, changing technologies and media. The Banff Centre encourages projects that research emerging digital cultures, such as location based installations, electronic publishing or projects using networked new media, such as Web TV, satellite, cable and fibre services. It unites the performing arts, music, visual and media arts, architecture, science and technologies.

Proposals from artists, independent producers, researchers, broadcasters, Internet distributors, artists' networks and centres, distributors, interactive media and games companies, software developers, galleries, museums, and biotechnology companies are encouraged. Projects from Canada and abroad are supported:

  • Cultural projects for television and/or new media in all disciplines and forms, such as television opera, dance and technology, documentaries about the arts or artists;
  • Multimedia and new media proposals for publication, web site projects, interactive film and television, software development initiatives, such as projects that use streaming, projects that explore data bases and navigation for the Internet;
  • Cross platform projects that combine television, film, audio, web and other forms of interactive media delivery;
  • Research and production projects that bring together science and arts;
  • Research and production projects in augmented reality, interactive performance, human/computer interface, emotional computing;
  • High risk Canadian multimedia projects that bring together the resources of the producers and those of The Banff Centre and Telefilm Canada.

Professional development goals are defined on a project-by-project basis. The Banff Centre staff, work study technicians and external crews (when appropriate) provide support for production.

Applicants must be mid-career or senior professionals with professional development needs.

Apply now for one or more residencies!

Fore more information, please contact: The Banff Centre for the Arts, Office of the Registrar, Box 1020, Station 28, 107 Tunnel Mountain Drive, Banff, Alberta, Canada T0L 0C0, tel.: (403) 762-6180; 1-800-565-9989; fax: (403) 762-6345; e-mail: arts_info@banffcentre.ab.ca; http://www.banffcentre.ab.ca/CFA

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In Transitum Fund for Balkan Translators

The European Cultural Foundation has teamed up with the Fund for Central and East European Book Projects and KulturKontakt Austria to set up In Transitum, a mobility fund offering support to translators working in the Balkan region for study visits to the country of the language they translate. The programme, officially launched at the Frankfurt Book Fair in October 1999, is aimed at those translating literature into and from the following countries: Albania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece, Macedonia, Romania, Slovenia, Turkey, and Yugoslavia.

For further information, please contact: Kirsten van den Hul, Programme Assistant, Fund for Central and East European Book Projects (CEEBP), Jan van Goyenkade 5, 1075 HN Amsterdam, The Netherlands, tel.: +31 20 676 0222; fax: +31 20 675 2231: e-mail: intransitum@intransitum.org; http://www.intransitum.org

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'Artist Life-Preserver' Art Grant

The Rema Hort Mann Foundation was created in 1995 by the friends and family of Rema Hort Mann to honour her joyful and vivacious life after her untimely death from cancer at age 30.

The Rema Hort Mann Foundation's goal is to honour the creative and passionate life that Rema had lived. One of her passions was the arts and the young artist community. Rema frequented galleries, artists' studios, and exhibition openings to learn about and appreciate the unique perspectives on society that were reflected in new artists' works. It was then, as a founder of the Young Collectors Group of the New Museum of Contemporary Art, that Rema decided to dedicate her time and energy to increasing an awareness of new artists and their conceptual work.

To honour Rema's enthusiasm for the arts, the Foundation offers 'Artist Life-Preserver' grants to support these emerging artists at a point in their artistic development where they need financial assistance to pursue their creative mission.

The nominating committee, made up of art world professionals, has already awarded fifteen 'Artist Life-Preserver' grants to a diverse group of cutting-edge artists. These grants have spawned exhibitions, helped to complete videos, and have led to gallery shows for all the recipients. Several artists have since appeared in prestigious international shows, at venues that include the ICA in London and the P.S. 1 in New York, successfully catapulting their careers in the art world.

For more information, please contact: Rema Hort Mann Foundation, 155 Hudson Street, New York, NY 10013, USA, tel.: 212 431 1622; fax: 212 431 2634.
For general information: info@remahortmannfoundation.org
For art grant inquiries: artgrant@remahortmannfoundation.org
http://www.remahortmannfoundation.org

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Europa Nostra Awards 2000

A key instrument in the propagation of the aims of Europa Nostra (see Culturelink no. 20/November 1996, p. 7), the Pan-European Federation for the Heritage, is its annual Award Scheme. This has three complementary pillars, which as of 1 January 2000 have been further harmonized and partly renamed: Medals of Honour, Heritage Awards and Restoration Fund Grants. All of them, in different ways, give encouragement and recognition to exemplary projects and/or personal achievements in the field of heritage. Today, the value of this comprehensive annual Award Scheme has been fully recognized by the European Union.

  • Medals of Honour recognize the merit of a sustained and exemplary contribution to the protection and/or enhancement of the European heritage, both built and natural, made by a particular person. Annually, up to four such distinctions may be granted to individuals.
  • Heritage Awards recognize the exemplary realization of projects which make a distinct contribution to the conservation and enhancement of Europe's built and natural heritage. Annually, up to forty awards may be given for projects from the private or public sector.
  • Restoration Fund Grants are single financial contributions for the restoration of a privately owned endangered building or site, having architectural and historic value: namely, a fortified work or a building, a castle or a dwelling having a historic character, or their ruins, and associated parks and gardens.

Are you eligible for an award?

To find out about the conditions of entry, please contact: Europa Nostra, Awards Officer, Lange Voorhout 35, NL-2514 Den Haag, The Netherlands, tel.: +31 70 3024050; fax: +31 70 3617865; e-mail: office@europanostra.org