home > publications > review > no.36 > research  

Research and Programmes

Culturelink review, no.36/April 2002 - contents - imprint - archive

Exploitation and Development of the Job Potential in the Cultural Sector in the Age of Digitalisation

This EU project (See also Culturelink no. 34/August 2001, pp. 61-62.) was carried out by the MKW Wirtschaftsforschung GmbH, Munich and österreichische kulturdokumentation. internationales archiv für kulturanalysen, Vienna together with other partners: empirica Delasasse, Cologne, INTERARTS, Barcelona, Economix Research & Consulting, Munich, and WIMMEX AG, Munich. The project was commissioned by the European Commission, Directorate-General for Employment and Social Affairs.

This Final Report, together with the Summary available in all EU languages, identifies new strategies for exploiting the employment potential of the cultural sector in the European Union. Specific attention was given to the audio-visual industry and new technological developments in general.

The project consisted of five modules:

  • Module 1: Overview of current research on employment potential in the cultural sector;
  • Module 2: Identification of the current employment trends in the cultural sector;
  • Module 3: Identification of the current employment trends in the TIMES sector (Telecommunication, Internet, Multimedia, E-commerce, Software and Security);
  • Module 4: Collection of good practices in training provision, including models of public-private partnerships;
  • Module 5: Identification of obstacles to transnational and cross-border mobility.

The cultural sector is characterised by a high share of freelancers and very small companies. A new type of employer is emerging in the form of the 'entrepreneurial individual' or 'entrepreneurial cultural worker', who no longer fits into previously typical patterns of full-time professions.

The 'digital culture' is the result of an interaction between 'traditional' culture (content), the TIMES sector (technology) and services/distribution. Digital culture has acted as an employment motor in the past and will continue to do so in the future, primarily based upon the strong demand within the TIMES sector for creativity and content. At the same time, dramatic personnel bottlenecks can already be observed in this sector today. Thus, policy makers must better orient their instruments of employment policy towards this area, both on the European and national levels.

For further information and to obtain the study, please contact: österreichische kulturdokumentation, internationales archiv für kulturanalysen, Vienna, Austria, tel.: +431 535 2705; fax: +431 533 4989; e-mail: office@kulturdokumentation.org; http://www.kulturdokumentation.org

return to top of page

Regional Survey on Community Traditional Music and Dance, and Music from around the World

Summary of the survey conduced by Sami Sadak and Philippe Fanise
Arcade, Regional traditional music and dance mission,
Provence-Alpes Côte d'Azur, France, 2001, 10 pp.

The ARCADE traditional music and dance mission conducted this survey between January 2000 and May 2001 with the various associations that perform activities linked with community-based music, the music and dances of the world. This survey was also conducted with a number of cultural players coming from an immigrant milieu, as well as with musicians, dancers and ensembles focusing on music from around the world.

The region of Provence-Alpes Côte d'Azur is characterised as a cosmopolitan space (like many other European southern regions) that has been internationalised through the effects of migratory movements. A metropolis such as Marseille is a perfect illustration of this mosaic of cultures: over thirty identifiable cultural community structures build dynamic networks. These communities maintain ties with their native land and with the region through the diaspora and networks of associations. Traditional music plays an essential role in all of these communities, most notably in the transmission of cultural and identity-related values. This traditional music lives within the communities themselves (at weddings, celebrations, etc.), but it also enters into contact with other imported and regional traditions through a process of fusion and crossover, often initiated by these communities' artists and by artists focused on Provençal music.

This survey examined the role of different associations in the practise of traditional music and dance. Regarding musicians and dancers who practise music and dance, the survey analysed their musical repertoires, their links with the country of origin, as well as their cooperation with the region's artists and associations. In the concluding remarks and observations, the authors note that the presence of world music is visible not only in urban centres but also in rural areas throughout France. They find interesting the increasingly frequent involvement of 'French' musicians and dancers in community events. The survey further highlights the importance of artistic, cultural and institutional initiatives fostering inter-communal exchange. In this context, the research proves the existence of a great deal of crossover and interaction between Provençal music and that born in other cultures.

A special section of the research is dedicated to the younger generations and their response to these trends. While some representatives of the younger generation prove to be very proud of their roots, others show that the relationship with their places of origin might be more conflictual. The survey further elaborates the influences of sacred music from around the world, claiming that music and religion are bound together by many ties. As an example, the survey presents the events organised by several churches in the region and also explores the role of cultural associations and institution-backed events with a lively interest in sacred traditional repertoires from around the world. Religiously inspired repertoires constitute one of the cornerstones of community musical practise and account for a good deal of the artistic appeal of the world's music.

The next chapter is dedicated to expressions of the identity-community dichotomy in community practices. Community musical activities reflect the community's length of presence and geographical distribution in the region. Some of the communities that have settled in the region have a natural need to create ties with networks that allow them to maintain links with the past, while living fully in the present. This dual allegiance of the musical practices can be noted in a number of communities. The survey pays particular attention to the role of traditional music and dance amongst amateurs. One of the authors claims that 'the field of traditional music and dance is a sector where professional and amateur practices are closely intertwined, and often indistinguishable', noting that it would be more exact to speak of popular or social practice rather than amateur practice.

In their final remarks, the authors put this survey in a broader European context. The goal of the study is not merely to remain regional in scope, but rather to help foster reflection on a much broader level. A number of European regions are gradually becoming cultural microcosms of Europe and the world. The observation of traditional music and dance practices make it possible, on the one hand, to observe the degree of integration, assimilation, or, conversely, of identity-based resistance on the part of certain communities and, on the other hand, to see the emergence of new forms of cultural expression that link, cross over or fuse with regional heritage and to appreciate the dynamic contribution made by other cultures.

To obtain the complete report free of charge, please contact: Sami Sadak; Arcade, Agence régionale de coordination artistique et de développement, 17, rue Venel - BP 84, 13101 Aix-en Provence Cedex 1, France; tel.: +33 4 42 21 78 00; fax: +33 4 42 21 78 01; e-mail: mrmdtrad@arcade-paca.com; http://www.arcade-paca.com

return to top of page

A Soundtrack for Scottish Tourism

A Soundtrack for Scottish Tourism is the Scottish Arts Council and VisitScotland's Traditional Music and Tourism Initiative, a landmark in the development of thinking and action on cultural tourism, already earmarked as a priority area for future efforts in Scottish tourism marketing and development. The projects supported by the Initiative include concert series, informal music sessions in pubs and hotels, a promotional video, an award-winning scheme linking ferry passengers with live event at their destination, and database research in Area Tourist Board (ATB) regions.

The Initiative has worked with the grain of developments in Scotland's traditional music scene. Celtic Connections provides a notable urban example: the festival is a major event in the international music calendar and generates significant additional off-season tourism income for the city of Glasgow.

The aim of the project was to raise the profile of traditional music within Scottish tourism and to ensure that visitors to Scotland have ready access to traditional music, thereby enforcing Scottish musical heritage and culture and raising the benefits for the local economy. Therefore, a joint Scottish Arts Council/VisitScotland fund was established to assist and stimulate projects which were designed to increase visitor knowledge, awareness of, and access to, traditional music; involved or developed productive understanding and collaboration between the tourism sector and the traditional music sector; involved and appropriate mix of musicians, event promoters, venues, ATBs, Tourist Information Centres (TICs) and other tourist organizations; created new opportunities for activities to extend tourism and music promotion to mutual benefit.

Initial work included investigating the development of links between tourism and traditional music elsewhere, the obvious example being the Republic of Ireland. A series of research was done, followed by the training sessions for ATB and TIC staff. A promoters' handbook was commissioned and a series of seminars and media events were arranged. Then followed local demonstration projects: nineteen of them in eleven areas were supported over the three-year period of the Initiative.

Analyzing the key points, it was concluded that there were clear business benefits to individual traders, and many were persuaded of the case for investing more in traditional music; there were clear benefits to the visitor's experience of Scotland; there was clear evidence of the value of marketing aimed directly at cultural tourists and enlisting musicians as tourism ambassadors; traditional music can persuade visitors to explore an area more fully; promotional skills and information systems are improving; the Initiative has been a catalyst for further activity.

To obtain the publication or to find out more, please contact: The Scottish Arts Council, Music Department and Area Development Department, 12 Mannor Place, Edinburgh EH3 7DD, United Kingdom, tel.: +44 131 226 6051: fax: +44 131 225 9833; e-mail: help.desk@scottisharts.org.uk; http://www.sac.org.uk

return to top of page

Looking Inside

Looking Inside is a new programme component of the Arts and Culture Network Programme of the Open Society Institute, in cooperation with the Soros Foundations network. It features East-East placements in well-established and acknowledged cultural institutions of Central and Eastern Europe, Central Asia, the Caucasus and Mongolia for art managers and cultural administrators from the region.

The main goals of Looking Inside are the following:

  • to increase the mobility of cultural and arts practitioners who want to implement innovative models of operation in their organizations or institutions based on exploring other cultural practices;
  • to contribute to the sharing and exchange of competencies, practices, skills and knowledge among arts managers and cultural administrators, by organizing placements in well-recognized artistic institutions in the region;
  • to invest in cultural professionals who can contribute to significant long-term sustainable changes in culture and the arts in Central and Eastern Europe, Central Asia, the Caucasus, and Mongolia.

The idea is that both sides should profit from the programme: art manager by acquiring new competencies and gaining new experience, and the hosting cultural institution by involving high-quality professionals in its activity, creating new links and exploring possibilities for developing new projects in the long-run.

Looking Inside offers 2-3 week long internships for professionals interested in raising their skills in particular fields. All interns will be chosen in the procedure of international competition.

For more information, please contact: Elzbieta Grygiel, Arts and Culture Network Programme Manager, Stefan Batory Foundation, ul. Sapiezynska 10 a, 00-215 Warsaw, Poland, tel.: +48 22 536 02 32; fax: +48 22 536 02 20; e-mail: egrygiel@batory.org.pl; http://www.batory.org.pl/art/

return to top of page

UNIDEE - University of Ideas

An International Residence Programme

UNIDEE - University of Ideas is the principal organism of Cittadellarte, Fondazione Pistoletto, a non-profit artistic and cultural society. It is a centre for research and for the production and promotion of creative ideas aimed at achieving an interaction between artistic, humanistic and scientific disciplines. Art education at UNIDEE is linked with other disciplines. The structure of the programme is such that different forms of knowledge come together and are presented to young creative individuals guided by teachers, experts and eminent figures from different cultural and productive fields in order to enable them to develop new perspectives on the relationship between art and life.

Each year, twenty young, highly-creative individuals (musicians, performers, visual artists, photographers, architects, designers, etc.) from around the world, selected by an international panel, come to live and work in residence in the beautiful surroundings at Cittadellarte for four months as part of the UNIDEE in International Residence Programme. Besides participating in the activities specifically designed for them, they also take part in all other initiatives, such as exhibitions, conferences, performances, publications and communication projects involving the use of the new media.

UNIDEE in Residence is held in July, September and October. The activities are guided by philosophers, scientists, artists, business people and experts in communication, all dedicated to the quest for responsible social transformation: creativity as a response to 'progress' and deterioration of the planet.

For residence information, please contact: Cittadellarte, Fondazione Pistoletto, Via Serralunga 27, 13900 Biella, Italy; tel.: +390 15 28400; fax: +390 15 252 2540; e-mail: fondazionepistoletto@cittadellarte.it; http://www.cittadellarte.it

return to top of page

The Plans and Objectives of the International Cultural Centre Cracow for 2002

The International Cultural Centre (ICC) of Cracow has announced its plans and objectives for 2002. The year 2002 marks the beginning of the second decade of the activities of the International Cultural Centre, an institution with an established programme profile. This year, the promotion of a new attitude towards European heritage, not burdened with nationalism on the one hand, and, on the other, stressing the issues of identity, individual tradition and vernacular character of particular cultures, is still a topical subject.

A few physical modifications have been or will be made: the activities of the ICC will continue in the newly decorated and modernized House of Ravens; a new library will be opened to the public, making accessible the collection of specialized books, comprising over 10,000 valuable titles concerning cultural heritage and its preservation; the building will house the Academy of Heritage, which aims to train personnel for effective preservation of cultural values. The Academy is the Centre's educational branch, whose educational activities have so far been mainly carried out within the framework of the College for New Europe. The College still remains one of the most significant forms of the Centre's work, especially in the context of international cooperation, which is the Centre's main objective.

The important elements are conferences and seminars held on the ICC's premises. In spring 2002, the Centre will host a meeting of the Council of Europe Heritage Network and will participate in the organization of a conference under the working title The Results and Prospects of Cultural Policy in Central Europe. It will mark ten years since the CSCE Symposium in Cracow, whose final document was a veritable Magna Charta of European culture.

In the series of bilateral conferences, the Centre is planning a Ukrainian-Polish forum on the role of Cracow and Lvov in European civilization. The event, to be held this autumn, is expected to bring together many outstanding scholars from Poland, Ukraine and other countries.

The Centre will continue to stage exhibitions for the Polish public. This year's programme of exhibitions, begun ten years ago, includes the European avant-garde at the turn of the nineteenth century and Mendelsohn, Dülfer, Ensor reaching the roots of Modernism. The rebuilding of Warsaw and the iconography of Lvov will be presented in the cycle devoted to the preservation of architectural heritage. The cycle presenting the work of Polish artists living abroad will feature Andrzej Nowacki.

The basic rule of the Centre's activity - openness to neighbours - is the objective designed to strengthen cultural diversity as the basis of European identity.

For more information, please contact: International Cultural Centre, Rynek Glówny 25, 31-008 Kraków, Poland, tel.: +48-12-4242-800 4242-811; fax: +48-12-421-8571 / 421-7844; e-mail: secret@mck.krakow.pl; http://www.mck.krakow.pl

return to top of page

11th International Salzburg Summer Academy for Arts Management

The 11th International Salzburg Summer Academy for Arts Management will be held in Salzburg, Austria, from July 22nd to August 3rd, 2002. The two week management course is addressed to leaders and project managers from any country, working in the arts, culture or media on national and international level.

Within the last 10 years the Summer Academy brought together over 200 young professionals from all over the world. This year, it intends to invite arts managers from all over Eastern and Western Europe, Africa, USA, India, Japan and other countries. The course is organised and held by the International Centre for Culture and Management (ICCM), Salzburg in cooperation with Fitzcarraldo Foundation (Turin, Italy), Columbia College Chicago (USA) and Carnegie Mellon University (Pittsburgh, USA).

For more information, please visit web site or contact: International Centre for Culture and Management (ICCM), Gyllenstormstrasse 8, 5026 Salzburg, Austria; tel.: +43 662 45 98 41 - 24; fax: +43 662 45 98 38; e-mail: isac@iccm.at; http://www.iccm.at

return to top of page

Masters' in Arts Management / Career Development

The Department of Arts Policy and Management at City University (London) is now welcoming applications for the next academic year starting October 2002.

The opportunity is that the course allows you to plan your own pathway of studies because you choose the modules you want to study; in other words, it gives you the possibility to direct (or re-direct) your career in whatever direction you want and only study those subjects you feel you need to know more about.

The course: You are required to complete 4 modules - 2 compulsory and 2 electives - and a 15,000 word dissertation where you will be able to explore a topic of your choice.

The compulsory (those you have to do) modules are:

  • Arts Management in Practice, and
  • Arts Framework

The elective modules (those you choose 2 from) on offer are:

  • Arts Audiences
  • Finance and Marketing
  • Human Resource Management
  • Policy-making in the Arts
  • Art, Design and Commerce
  • Music Management
  • Education in the Arts
  • Managing the Visual Arts
  • Managing International Cultural Relations

More information and an application form can be downloaded from web site where you can also find info on other courses: http://www.city.ac.uk/artspolicy

Each year the MA welcomes students from 30 different nationalities and responds to this diverse constituency by focusing on the arts and cultural realities not only of the United Kingdom but also of other countries in Europe and the European Union, Americas and Asia.

If you do not have access to the web just reply to this message or e-mail Susan Ignatieff for a brochure and application form at the following e-address: s.ignatieff@city.ac.uk

For more information, please contact: Department of Arts Policy and Management, City University, Level 7, Barbican Centre, London EC2Y 8HB; United Kingdom; http://www.city.ac.uk/artspolicy