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Research and Programmes

Culturelink review, no.44/November 2004 - contents - imprint - archive


by António Pinto Ribeiro (Consultant, Gulbenkian Foundation, e-mail: apribeiro@gulbenkian.pt)

'I walk the world' (Song by Adriana Calcanhotto.), I eat Portuguese pastry in Macau and sushi in Lisbon, I check my email box in real time at some computer in Salvador da Bahia, I watch the TV direct coverage of a prisoner being chased by the police along a Chicago highway from my hotel room in Beijing... Bjork's last CD is presented live to the world at a press conference in a hotel in Paris.

The world seems small and its geographic boundaries appear obvious and within range. This is an illusion of perception built by the advanced technology holding up the mechanisms which enables information to circulate. Another effect resulting from the way this system is built is the belief it generates that nothing is left behind and that everything finds its way into the uniform flow of information circulating at any given moment: nothing remains, nothing is left out. No system lives without opposition, and capitalism is a system able to generate efficacy in some situations and unevenness in others. In parallel with this wide information efficiency, particularly available to those with means to benefit from it, this communication machine has made evident that there are many others unable to take advantage of it, thus making the differences between these two groups all the more discriminating.

The United Nations Human Development Report 2001, a survey focusing on 77 countries and covering around 82% of the world population, shows that, between the 50's and 90's, inequality increased in 45 countries and decreased in 16. Of the 4,6 billion people living in the developing countries, 850 million are illiterate adults and 543 million of them are women. Around 325 million children are out of school at the primary and secondary levels. Regarding income levels, 1.2 billion people are living on less than $1 US a day and 2.8 billion on less than $2 US a day. In the OECD countries more that 130 million people live in poverty, deprived of a minimum income, 34 million are unemployed and, among the adult population, 15% lack functional literacy skills. These numbers will naturally throw into question the idea of abundance that characterizes the accounts made by the supporters of the new communication technologies on the effects these technologies generate. When confronting these statistical data, those who champion the new economy must concur that not only has it not dealt with the problems of the old economy but that it has actually contributed to creating new outcasts. One of the causes of this new source of social exclusion, which is also of a symbolic nature, lies in the alleged communication technologies accessibility paradox, particularly on the Internet. The truth is that as the use of computers increases, new forms of illiteracy also appear in the same proportion. Until the end of the Second World War it was possible to consider only one form of illiteracy, i.e., the lack of skills related to the failure to interpret a written text. However, this feature alone would not be adequate to characterize illiteracy in the post-war era where different forms, such as the discourse form, mathematics, the visual and the hearing form are very much in evidence. The new communication technologies caused different forms of illiteracy: audiovisual and cybernetic. It is not enough to be able to read or write in order to know how to send an email or how to surf the Net; to be a music lover does not mean that a person actually masters the process of decoding digital audiovisual languages, and so forth. Consequently, through other media, millions of new outsiders can now be added to the millions of outcasts of the old economy. It is therefore evident that in these two types of exclusion lies a call for cultural intervention. What can small authorities, or institutions that work closely to people, do to minimize these types of exclusion from within the capitalist system (considering that, at present, there is no system outside it)? I believe that social interventions and specific support relying on pedagogic action inside the communities should be put into practice and that such programmes should be about helping citizens who decided to live in a given community to become integrated into that community.

With regard to illiteracies, it is opportune that a series of strategies designed to teach the new skills should be set out in order to make it possible for the newly excluded to 'read' the world they live in. Putting a book before an illiterate person is simply not enough to teach that person to read. It is also necessary to provide the tools which will enable this person to decode audiovisual and cybernetic messages. Technology is one of the best and most efficient means to fight exclusion, as well as to allow the future of a community. And this brings us to an important issue, which is: the Community.

In Poetics, part 1450b, Aristotle asserts that one of roles of Tragedy is the possibility of regenerating the community by praising the glory of its heroes. Although we are well aware that this is a pre-Christian manuscript, it is worth highlighting the importance attributed to the community as the recipient of all human actions. The same assertion may be found in another fundamental source of Aristotle's thinking - Ethics, more specifically in books V and VI, where the philosopher ponders the value of friendship as a means of activating an ethic within the city. In spite of being archaic, having been produced in different circumstances, these reflections on the community are absolutely essential to help as understand the existing deep-rooted dogma that holds that the wide distribution of information and commodities is something which is already perfectly achieved and standardized and we live in the realm of universal accessibility.

In her study on universal ethics and its enemies, Victoria Camps (Camps, Victoria. 'La universalidade etica y sus enemigos', in Universalidad y diferencia. Madrid: Alianza Universidad, 1996.) compares, in a particularly operative way, the possibility of a communitarian ethics. Starting by acknowledging that modernity brought indisputable achievements to man, such as freedom, independence and privacy, she concludes that the same modernity has also built up in man a sense of individualism and the loss of perceiving common goals. The author believes that if a universal ethical concern based on the principles of freedom, equality and brotherhood survives in our days, and if Kant's 'Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysics of Morals' still prevails, namely the saying 'I am never to act otherwise than so that I could also will that my maxim should become a universal law', such maxims tend to become formal imperatives with no substance or efficacy in human practice.

On the other hand, Victoria Camps is known for criticizing communitarian projects on the basis that such projects do not go beyond a sort of nostalgia for the time of self-satisfied achievement. Furthermore, communitarian perspectives tend to oppose social differentiation, public space and open societies. As major assets of modernity, open societies constitute the opportunity for implementing democracy and for differentiated groups inside the community to share responsibility and cultural production.

The sustained idea is thus a non-nostalgic concept of community that encloses a design for the future in agreement with the notions of public space and open society. According to the author, it is all about a kind of civil religion able to mediate the excessive individuality of contemporary societies, an applied ethic that may be translated into cultural community practices.

The pedagogy of new skills has already been mentioned as the main goal with respect, particularly, to the new ability deriving from audiovisual and cybernetic technologies. However, there are other educational practices of personal achievement - theatre, dance, photography and music - involving the participation of non-professionals, which enable specific groups within the community to produce their own fantasies and role-playing, thus creating the opportunity for their own future.

In a wonderful and fundamental essay, Jacques Derrida (Derrida, Jacques, 'Cosmopolites de tous les pays, encore un effort'. Paris: Galilée, 1997.) claims that the creation of shelter-cities is the quintessence of cosmopolitan practice. Creating shelter-cities is the way for politically modern societies to respond to the need of giving sanctuary to refugees, deported and displaced people in general. Derrida was inspired by Hannah Arendt's thesis from 1950's criticizing the fact that although the right to sanctuary was common practise in the medieval era, international law still did not contemplate this right. Reflecting on the humiliation factor, that is, being without a country and nationality, Derrida supports the idea for shelter-cities (already a fact) also as an experience of law and democracy into a universal 'to be' where other types of cities and other kinds of communities will be possible.

What could Art do for the outcasts of both old and new economy? What might it do for the remaining excluded? Might Art to save anyone at all? In a beautiful song entitled Esquadros, the song writer and singer Adriana Calcanhotto confronts herself with the darker side of globalisation: the increase of a new world poverty, its worldwide spread and its media disclosure. Will artists - if they wish to - be able to do anything against this state of affairs? I am not referring to the abilities that citizen-artists actually have to intervene on social and political levels, because at these levels they will always be able to do so provided that they wish to. I am referring to their intervention capabilities in their art creators' capacity. In such a capacity it would be most desirable that they might be capable of creating shelters.

The idea of shelters, although not mentioned explicitly in the history of arts, has always been implied in some way. The shelter, a symbol of protection and association of outcasts, is not a new sign. It dates to the time when Aeschylus wrote the Oresteia (story of Orestes) and establishes law as the mechanism to ensure protection and justice. It is also an ethical imperative when Kant proclaims the need to act, as thought acting were in itself a universal action. It exists to protect the freedom of action when John Steinbeck writes The Grapes of Wrath, when Buñuel directs Viridiana, or when Pasolini writes and makes cinema. They are all giving visibility and identity to persons that would not be known at all if they did not protect them from anonymity, thus allowing the poor to have space and territory. Gabriela Llansol does it in Geografia dos Pobres (Geography of the Poor) and Pedro Costa attempts it in Wanda's Room. In a similar way, we feel sheltered each time we read a poem that somehow harbours a sense of pain which resembles our own, or portrays the joy we experience before certain features of the world.

However, the present discussion is not about this formal shelter, it is rather about a shelter that more than represents reality and is actually able to intervene in it artistically. The issue at hand nowadays goes a little beyond that: it approaches the possibility of art being able to interfere in reality, sheltering those who have no shelter. It is not art representing the real world but rather art as the real world of representation (Jean-Luc Nancy). Some people will argue that the functioning of this sheltering art will deprive it of its artistic aura. I point out, however, that the current status of information itself makes it imperative to introduce a radical change on the perception of the world and of art.

We are no longer living in a world where our perception is ruled by simple evidence such as watching the trotting of a horse, the motion of a train or the flight of an aircraft. On the contrary, we live at the time when the circulation of information happens in real time and in such a way that, on the one hand, a high percentage of that information does not reach the intended addressee and, on the other, the majority of the information that actually reaches its intended recipient is not understood by this recipient. Millions of bits of information are produced every day that remain concealed to everyone except, of course, to those who produced them. There are hundreds of thousands of sites enclosing information, which is thrown into space without actually being addressed to anyone. Under these circumstances the perception of the world has become clearly partial, brief and fragmented.

Although universal in inclination, a work of art may have an operative intervention considering how it may alter the real world. The notion of 'shelter' is quite widespread among several contemporary artists, such as Ângela Ferreira, Lia Rodrigues, Joep van Lieshout, and Rirkrit Tiravanija, to name just four examples.

Ângela Ferreira is a Portuguese visual artist that has for a long time been working on the subject of de-construction of the history of Portugal, particularly during the colonial period. Her works equate, in a particularly effective way, the production of cultural ideology and myths during the Portuguese fascist regime by school institutions in Portugal as well as in the ex-colonies. Bringing together her conceptual heritage and theoretical concerns of a post-colonial nature, Ângela Ferreira is the author of several works which simultaneously intervene in the community and derive from the community.

Her last work, recently presented in Amsterdam, is entitled Zip Zap Circus School (2000). It is a work that started with an attempt to re-evaluate a project commissioned to Miles van der Rohe by a Dutch millionaires couple who wished to build a museum to house their art collections. The project was never executed and it never went beyond the prototype stage, a 1:1 scale model, which was placed in the millionaire couple's home garden. Ângela took an interest in the project and developed it in collaboration with another architect creating a real scale model of a circus formerly commissioned by a certain community in Cape Town, South Africa. The work brings together knowledge, which is both plastic and architectural, and originates in the cooperation of two artists that wind up bringing about a situation that epitomizes something an entire community hoped for, for its own benefit. The final result puts us before the work - a new social setting that favours the communitarian and the political dimensions of art at the same time.

It would be vital for Lia Rodrigues' choreographic works that her texts, which circulate on the Internet, could have greater visibility in order for the artist's aesthetic, social and artistic views to be fully understood. Her texts talk about her experience as a dance teacher in Maputo, where she learned what it is to build that 'place' amongst 'possibility-places', 'future-place', and 'mestizo-place'. They reiterate the idea that in Brazil, the black man goes on being a member of an invisible population, with no identity other than some GDP (Gross Domestic Product) number. They ponder on the legacy of colonialism and slavery. Lia's texts also draw attention to other unnoticed human beings in Brazil, whom she calls 'third-rated'. These men cry as they watch the Petrobas oil platform drowning; they are not adjusted and they do not fit into any land's history. Yet, at the same time, they show indignation. She also writes about Brazilian women, and about how they are domestically abused to a point where this abuse becomes glorified in popular songs, such as Tapa na cara with lyrics that include lines like: '(...) I'll throw you in bed and give you great hassle' (Melô do Tigrao), reflecting on how, at the same time, sexual crimes against women tend to increase.

By reading Lia Rodrigues' texts we come to understand much better her choreographic art based in recycled materials, and to grasp how essential the movements, the sounds and the staging actually are. Why essential? Because they show the relation between art and everyday life, an art that equates the pleasure to be drawn from this everyday life, an art that aims to make it accessible to everybody. This is how the idea of the cultural condo project first appeared. The cultural condo is located in a degraded building in the centre of Rio de Janeiro that enables artists to put together communitarian projects or producing works, such as 1.99 (one real and 99 cents was the cost of the ticket to watch this show). For many people, this was their first visit to a performance of this kind. Another work worth mentioning is Aquilo de que somos feitos (The stuff we are made of) that focuses on the very basic human feature that can actually be traded as work force: the body.

Consumer art, Tupperware art, domestic renovation art are a few of the expressions currently used to characterize Joep van Lieshout's work, the artist responsible for the Atelier Van Lieshout. In this studio there is a practical solution for every problem; aspects like the durability of the materials used, their functioning and their competitive prices are the most important. Van Lieshout's objects are related to everyday life; the dynamics of everyday life, particularly its biological and psychological features, are in focus. The artist is concerned about architectural issues such as 'having a roof over one's head', hygiene, comfort, attention to the way food is cooked and taken, etc. The things he builds aim to highlight life inside a house: to van Lieshout the house is the supreme shelter. Throughout his work he creates ironical objects that generate reflection on the clich‚s of another architecture. Worth mentioning as examples are La bais-ô-drôme (1995), a brothel shaped like a penis and interior furniture that evokes various stages of sexual recreation, and Autocraat (1997), a caravan that symbolizes contemporary man's fear, by creating a place of sanctuary and tranquillity. The work of the Atelier Van Lieshout is a work of warning and, at the same time, of shelter making.

Born in Thailand and living between New York and Berlin, Rirkrit Tiravanija is well known for his 'fortune kitchens' installations. These installations, made with sets of gas cooking stoves and other camping objects (boxes, bags of food, canned food containers), are built in exhibition spaces and left to the visitors to play with at will. The symbolic significance of the kitchen and meals, thereby identifying different societies, is the main theme in Rirkrit Tiravanija's art. In 1993, at the Venice Biennale's Open, visitors could have Chinese soup only by taking the trouble to add water to the instant soup packages available on the site. More than culinary installations, these artistic procedures ponder new ways of conceiving the artistic circuit. For instance, how would the museum directors, art critics and visitors of a show's opening react if, all of a sudden, the homeless decided to settle and have their meals at the Dom-Ino (a work presented in 1998), a flexible, cheap, easy to install and to move pre-fabricated habitat designed to be occupied by anyone in need?

Life has changed bringing with it changes in language. These changes are the consequence of technological shifts that happened at work, in the arts, in leisure and in science. In a way that can only be compared to the transformation that Freud brought to the world, the language originating in this technological revolution is finding its way into our everyday life and has been claimed by the speaking-citizen as his own. The use of this new language has necessarily contributed to a change in perception of the real world. After all, as Heidegger puts it, man inhabits the inner side of language. I think it would be epistemologically correct to consider the need for a new approach to language, namely, through the creation of new semantic fields, which could become a counterpoint and stand as the future of language in these new circumstances. As such, references to language in the cultural field, terms like 'cultural development', 'dialogue of cultures' and 'national art', are anachronistic as terminology. The technological revolution and the conditions for the reception of the works in the post-colonial period can no longer sustain this terminology because it is ideologically defunct. On the contrary, new terms are emerging today, which are able to address cultural creation, cultural distribution and the new conditions of perception. Examples of these new terms are: 'global work', 'reality internationalism', 'trans-culturalism', 'cultural multiplex', 'new public spaces', etc.

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'Razzaz' Project 2006

ECF EuroMed Initiative

'Razzaz' is the Arabic word for a very fine - and welcome - rain which brings fertility to the soil. This is the name given to the proposal made by the European Cultural Foundation (ECF) and partners in their submission to the EU delegation in Tunis. Razzaz was one of three projects chosen from more than fifty entries sent in response to the call for proposals.

The objectives are to document and reflect on the perceptions, achievements, impact, difficulties and prospects of Euro-Mediterranean cooperation among non-governmental actors. Razzaz considers - from a cultural perspective - the meaning of the Euro-Mediterranean partnership for the EU's relations with its Mediterranean neighbours, particularly in a difficult international context, ten years after the beginning of the Barcelona process. Razzaz is a large Euro-Mediterranean project built on genuine cooperation, with the ECF as project leader, and partners comprising Babelmed in Rome (the only cultural site dedicated to Mediterranean issues!), the Fondation Ren‚ Seydoux pour le Monde Méditerran‚en in Paris, the Complexe Culturel Moulay Rachid in Casablanca, the Villa Decius in Krakow, the Third Sector Foundation in Istanbul, and the Association Coopérative Culturelle pour les Jeunes du Théâtre et du Cinéma 'Shams' in Beirut; and with IEMed (Barcelona) and the Multicultural Centre (Prague) as associated organizations, together with several other contact organizations. For a period of twenty months, beginning this autumn, Razzaz will examine the achievements and prospects of the Euro-med partnership as it affects youth, migration, civil society development and migration, as seen from a cultural perspective. The meetings and workshops - which will have an artistic component - will be underpinned by a comprehensive set of communication activities: reportage, interviews, essays, cases studies, etc. Babelmed will be the main, but not the only, platform for these information activities, which will involve many journalists, writers and operators. In May 2006 a final gathering in the Netherlands will formulate the conclusions of this groundbreaking exercise in cross-Mediterranean interaction and reflection.

For more information, please contact: Odile Chenal, Project Director, e-mail: ochenal@eurocult.org; Isabelle Schwarz, Project Manager, e-mail: ischwarz@eurocult.org

(Source: September 2004 ECF E-zine)

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Culture Africa Network (CAN) Project

Funded by the Ford Foundation the pilot Culture Africa Network (CAN) Project enabled CAMA (Contemporary African Music and Arts) to establish documentary centres in seven countries across the African continent: Mali, Ghana, Sudan, Ethiopia, Kenya, Mozambique and South Africa. The project's aim is to facilitate the local gathering and sharing of excellent digital documentary resources for education, research and the promotion of Africa's artistic heritage and its 'culture-makers'.

For more information, please contact: e-mail: cama@cama.org.za; http://www.cama.org.za/CAMA/webcomponents/php/about.php

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Australian Research on Social Capital

Interest in social capital has grown strongly over the last decade, yet there is no internationally agreed framework of what constitutes social capital, how it accumulates in society, its impacts on communities and individuals, and how to measure all of the above. Since late 2001, the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) has been researching these issues and holding workshops and meetings around Australia to gauge the level of interest in measuring social capital and to determine the associated information needs.

Earlier this year, the ABS released an Information Paper that describes a broad conceptual framework for statistics on social capital and a set of possible indicators for measuring aspects of social capital. The information paper Measuring Social Capital: An Australian Framework and Indicators is freely available on the ABS website. Suggestions and comments on the publication are invited, and should be sent to the Assistant Director of Community Statistics. The ABS has now commenced work on developing measures of additional indicators to be included as a supplement to the 2005-06 General Social Survey.

For more information, please contact: National Centre for Culture and Recreation Statistics, Australian Bureau of Statistics, GPO Box 2272, Adelaide SA 5001, Australia, e-mail: nccrs@abs.gov.au; http://www.abs.gov.au

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Arts in UK Social Policy

Creative Exchange, the network for culture and development, has launched a new discussion paper - Developing the role of the arts in UK social policy. The paper explores the scope for arts sector involvement in a wide range of social policy agenda, from sustainable development and civic renewal, to equality and human rights. It explores opportunities for the Arts Council England to move beyond its current main focus on crime and health.

This discussion paper aims to provide greater clarity and background information on current strategic directions in government linked to 'arts and social inclusion'. It is part of a process of what has been described as 'building readiness and adaptability' of this sector of the arts to deliver in UK social policy. It is primarily aimed at stimulating discussion in Arts Council England and within the community of artists and arts organisations working in social policy arenas.

Researched by Creative Exchange during spring and summer 2004, it maps the current social agendas, their primary objectives and lead departments, and explores opportunities for action for the arts. The policy document also includes, for handy reference, an annotated sketch of social policy agendas relevant to the arts, lead departments/agencies and acronyms.

The paper contributes to discussions on a new social inclusion framework, which is being developed by Arts Council England and is also being distributed to contacts at the Department of Culture Media and Sport.

Copies can be downloaded from the Creative Exchange website: www.creativexchange.org

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ARTWORKS - Artistic Services in the Third Sector

Experts believe that in the third sector, the sector between market and state, which as a rule is not profit-oriented, there is a great deal of potential for creating new jobs.

Thus, the main focus of ARTWORKS is on developing new occupational fields for artists and their services in the third sector, especially in social work and health care, as well as on improving communication between artists and organizations in the third sector, including also increasing public awareness of the problems and opportunities related to the issue of culture and employment.

Both artists and non-profit organizations (NPOs) in Austria were questioned about their experiences and asked to give their assessments of these forms of cooperation. For this purpose, several thousand questionnaires were sent to both target groups. Altogether, 243 NPOs and 493 artists completed and returned the questionnaires. The responses served as the basis for qualitative surveys of the information received in the questionnaires and enabled the researchers to draw more precise conclusions.

The results gleaned through the parallel research of the two institutions were subsequently amalgamated to provide a comprehensive overview of a sector that previously had scarcely received any notice. In order to define the framework within which the overall study was to be made, and to present the existing state of affairs, the authors began their research by writing two status quo reports.

On the basis of the results of this research, the goal of ARTWORKS is not only to develop and consolidate new fields of employment for artists and their artistic services in the third sector, but above and beyond this, to establish the social and economic relevance of artistic services in the eyes of the public. In order to achieve this objective, it is necessary to network the relevant parties and organisations in the area of 'culture and employment', help artists gain qualifications for the new occupational fields, and strengthen the third sector through new forms of cooperation.

The ARTWORKS partnership is the only one of the 58 Austrian EQUAL projects to be dedicated to the topic of 'culture and employment'. The overall coordination of ARTWORKS is in the hands of KulturKontakt Austria / ÖKS Österreichischer Kultur-Service (Austrian Cultural Service).

If you are interested in ARTWORKS, please visit www.equal-artworks.at for further information. In case you would like to order a free printed version of the summary, please don't hesitate to get in touch with Barbara Neundlinger at: barbara.neundlinger@oks.at

Contact address: KulturKontakt Austria / ÖKS Österreichischer Kultur-Service, Projektmanagement International, Stiftgasse 6, A-1070 Wien, Austria, tel.: ++43 (0)1 523 57 81 22; fax: ++43 (0)1 523 89 33; http://www.equal-artworks.at, http:// www.OKS.at

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China/UK Arts Management Placement Programme

Visiting Arts is the national agency for promoting the flow of international arts into the UK and developing related cultural links abroad to help build cultural awareness, positive cultural relations, and fostering mutually beneficial arts contacts at national, regional, local and institutional levels.This programme is designed to fulfil Visiting Arts' remit by increasing the presentation of contemporary Chinese Arts in the UK whilst also looking to increase the presentation of contemporary British arts in China.

The programme has helped fulfil these objectives by developing the professional capacity of the arts managers involved and by nurturing the development of a network of arts managers from China and the UK who have a mutual understanding of each other's environments. There is now available a report which provides a brief overview of the programme which took place in 1999, a comprehensive account of the 2003 programme, and recommendations for future programmes.

For more information, please contact: Lara Riley, e-mail: information@visitingarts.org.uk; http://www.visitingarts.org.uk

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Position in Arts Administration

Teachers College, Columbia University, Department of Arts and Humanities

Position: The Program in Arts Administration seeks an individual with experience in arts administration, management and policy, and direct experience in an artistic discipline as an artist and/or manager to support the professional Masters Program in Arts Administration. Any of the following fields might apply: sociology, political science, philosophy, art history, education, business, law. Experience working with student teams and advising students is helpful. This individual should augment the expertise of the adjunct faculty in the program and complement the tracks in the Business and Law Schools.

Program Description/Background Information: The Program in Arts Administration is interdisciplinary with Columbia's Law and Business Schools. Founded in 1980 at Columbia's School of the Arts, it moved to Teachers College in 1991, expanding its disciplines to include education in its broadest sense. Additional collaborations have been developed with the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, in particular the School of the Arts and the Department of Art History, as well as partnerships with the professional field including the Arts and Business Council and the Museum of Modern Art in New York City.

At Teachers College, the Program in Arts Administration forms part of the larger Department of Arts and Humanities and includes the Programs of Art and Art Education and Music and Music Education, as well as specializations in philosophy, languages, history of education, cultural, critical and social studies. It grants a Master of Arts degree.

Responsibilities: Teach core background courses, core research seminars leading to the Masters Essay; help to develop a new specialization in the training of college teachers in arts administration, possibly leading to certification, as well as to develop a signature area of his or her own; maintain an active research agenda; and provide research advisement to approximately 20 masters students a year. In collaboration with the current Director, offer leadership and planning to the program, maintain an active research program, seek external funding to support his/her research and to contribute to collaborations the Program has made with research units at Columbia's main campus, Princeton and Cornell Universities.

Qualifications: Earned doctorate, strong background in arts administration or related disciplines, and a record of promise in scholarly inquiry and publication required. Demonstrated capacity to conduct programmatic research in this domain and an understanding of the balance between research, policy and practice.

Rank: Assistant/Associate Professor, Tenure Track.

Send CV, a cover letter stating how you meet qualifications, sample publications, and three letters of reference to Professor Judith Burton, Search Committee Chair, Box 78.

Review of applications will begin on October 15, 2004 and continue until the search is completed. Appointment begins September 2005.

For more information, please contact: Teachers College, Columbia University, 525 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027, USA; http://www.tc.columbia.edu/

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IFACCA Discussion Paper on Cultural Indicators

The International Federation of Arts Councils and Culture Agencies (IFACCA) paper on cultural indicators is available at http://www.ifacca.org/FILES/StatisticalIndicatorsArtsPolicy.pdf

This paper is intended to promote discussion among cultural organizations and lead to better statistical data for monitoring and evaluating cultural policies.

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European Diploma in Cultural Project Management 2005 – 2006

Application deadline: 15 January 2005

The European Diploma in Cultural Project Management is a training and learning experience fostering cultural diversity and interregional exchanges as a way of giving culture a stronger place within Europe. Through its content and methodology, this pan-European programme is specific in the way that it does not only aim at improving the skills of cultural administrators in the field of cultural management and administration, but also at helping the participants develop understanding of these fields in a changing Europe.

Its main aims are to make participants aware of challenges within their field of action and influence and to develop approaches and tools needed for co-operative and creative cultural workforce in Europe. Each year, around 25 professionals from 20 countries take part in the European Diploma. Since 1989, 350 cultural managers from 41 countries followed this course, among them a number of members of the Culturelink Network.

The programme is supported by the Council of Europe.

Who is the training for?

Cultural managers from public and private organizations who are actively involved in the management of cultural and artistic projects in their region, with at least 3 years of experience. The training languages being French and English, the applicants must be fluent in one of these working languages and have a good passive knowledge of the other. The age limit is 45.

Content and organization

The European Diploma is organized so that the participants carry on with their professional activities. The programme lasts one year and is organized in 3 phases: residential sessions, practical training and an evaluation + seminar phase.

The next training session will be organised in South West Sweden as well as in Portugal (Tondela) and Spain (Santiago de Compostella).

For more information, please visit: www.fondation-hicter.org